Boxing History

 
 

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Boxing
 

Sport involving attack and defense with the fists. In the modern sport, boxers wear padded gloves and fight bouts of up to 12 three-minute rounds in a roped-off square known as the ring. In ancient Greece fighters used leather thongs on their hands and forearms, while in Rome gladiators used metal-studded leather hand coverings (cesti) and usually fought to the death. Not until implementation of the London Prize Ring rules in 1839 were kicking, gouging, butting, biting, and blows below the belt eliminated from the boxer's standard repertoire. In 1867 the Queensberry rules called for the wearing of gloves, though bare-knuckle boxing continued into the late 1880s. The last of the great bare-knuckle fighters was John L. Sullivan. From Sullivan on, the U.S. became the premier boxing venue, partly because immigrants supplied a constantly renewed pool of boxers. Boxing has been included among the Olympic Games since 1904. Today there are 17 primary weight classes in professional boxing: strawweight, to 105 lbs (48 kg); junior flyweight, to 108 lbs (49 kg); flyweight, to 112 lbs (51 kg); junior bantamweight, to 115 lbs (52 kg); bantamweight, to 118 lbs (53.5 kg); junior featherweight, to 122 lbs (55 kg); featherweight, to 126 lbs (57 kg); junior lightweight, to 130 lbs (59 kg); lightweight, to 135 lbs (61 kg); junior welterweight, 140 lbs (63.5 kg); welterweight, to 147 lbs (67 kg); junior middleweight, 154 lbs (70 kg); middleweight, to 160 lbs (72.5 kg); super middleweight, 168 lbs (76 kg); light heavyweight, to 175 lbs (79 kg); cruiserweight, 190 lbs (86 kg); and heavyweight, over 190 lbs. A bout can be won either by knocking out or felling one's opponent for a count of 10 (a KO) or by delivering the most solid blows and thus amassing the most points. The referee can also stop the fight when one boxer is being badly beaten (a technical knockout, or TKO) or he can disqualify a fighter for rules violations and award the fight to his opponent.

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boxing, sport of fighting with fists, also called pugilism and prizefighting.

Early History

Depicted on the walls of tombs at Beni Hasan in Egypt, dating from about 2000 to 1500 B.C., boxing is one of the oldest forms of competition. A part of the ancient Olympic games, the sport was exhausting and brutal. The Greeks fought without regard for weight differentials and without interruption, a match ending only when a fighter lost consciousness or raised his hand in resignation. Boxers wound heavy strips of leather around their hands and wrists. Under Roman rule, these thongs (the caestus) were laced with metal, ensuring an abundance of blood. Statues of maimed boxers from late antiquity attest to the carnage. After the demise of the Olympics, boxing survived as a common sport. It persisted at local fairs and religious festivals throughout medieval Europe and was especially popular in the west and north of England, where it was often a combination of wrestling and street fighting.

The Organization of Boxing

In early 18th-century England, boxing, with the aid of royal patronage in the form of betting or offering prizes, became organized. James Figg, the first British champion (1719–30), opened a School of Arms, which attracted numerous young men to instruction in swordplay, cudgeling, and boxing—the “manly arts of self-defense.” After delivering a fatal blow in a bout, Jack Broughton drew up (1743) the first set of rules. Though fights still ended only in knockout or resignation, Broughton's rules moderated the sport and served as the basis for the later London Prize-ring Rules (1838) and Queensbury Rules (1867). The latter called for boxing gloves, a limited number of 3-min rounds, the forbidding of gouging and wrestling, a count of 10 sec before a floored boxer is disqualified, and various other features of modern boxing.

Boxing in the United States

Until late in the 19th cent., American fighters established their own rules, which were few. Early matches, some of them free-for-alls, featured biting and gouging as well as punching. In most instances they were also illegal. In 1888, John L. Sullivan, a bare-knuckle champion and America's first sports celebrity, won a clandestine 75-round match.

New York legalized boxing in 1896, and other states soon followed suit. Although the reign (1910–15) of the first African-American heavyweight champion, Jack Johnson, disturbed the segregated society of the time, and although many continued to question boxing's social purpose, its inclusion in the Olympic games in 1904, its use for military training in World War I, its emergence as a source of discipline for youth, its regulation by state commissions, and its suggestion of national vitality strengthened its claims to legitimacy and bolstered its popularity through the 1920s and 30s. Heavyweight (over 190 lb/86.3 kg) champions Jack Dempsey (1919–26) and Joe Louis (1937–49) were national heroes, Louis becoming one of the first black athletes to gain wide popularity.

Since World War II, boxing has proceeded amid corruption and, at times, chaos. Rising admission prices, restriction of title fights to closed-circuit television, the proliferation of organizations claiming to sanction fights and proclaim champions, financial scandals, ring injuries and deaths, monopolistic practices by promoters, and claims of exploitation of lower-class fighters have threatened its appeal, yet the sport continues to attract huge audiences and investment. Great fighters like Muhammad Ali elicit admiration and fascination, while controversy surrounds others like the repeatedly imprisoned Mike Tyson. Lennox Lewis is generally regarded as the current world heavyweight champion.

Amateur Boxing

Amateur boxing, while not free from debate, has in recent decades taken steps to ensure safety and objective judging. The Golden Gloves national tournament has long been a stepping stone for young fighters, but the Olympics are the most visible forum for amateurs. Olympic boxers wear eight-ounce gloves and padded head gear and fight just three rounds of three min. Judges use electronic devices to record the scoring punches that determine the winner.

Bibliography

See A. J. Liebling, The Sweet Science (1956); N. S. Fleischer, Fifty Years at Ringside (1940, repr. 1969); R. Roberts, Papa Jack (1983); E. Gorn, The Manly Art (1986); J. Sammons, Beyond the Ring (1988); G. Early, The Culture of Bruising (1994).

Directory > Words > Quotes About
Boxing

Quotes:

Float like a butterfly, sting like a bee. - Muhammad Ali

It's just a job. Grass grows, birds fly, waves pound the sand. I beat people up. - Muhammad Ali

Boxing is just show business with blood. - Frank Bruno

All the time he's boxing, he's thinking. All the time he was thinking, I was hitting him. - Jack Dempsey

I want to keep fighting because it is the only thing that keeps me out of the hamburger joints. If I don't fight, I'll eat this planet. - George Foreman

All fighters are prostitutes and all promoters are pimps. - Larry Holmes

I have always adhered to two principles. The first one is to train hard and get in the best possible physical condition. The second is to forget all about the other fellow until you face him in the ring and the bell sounds for the fight. - Rocky Marciano

 


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boxing
Professional boxing bout featuring Ricardo Domínguez (left) versus Rafael Ortíz

Professional boxing bout featuring Ricardo Domínguez (left) versus Rafael Ortíz

Boxing, also called Western Boxing, prizefighting (when referring to professional boxing) or the sweet science (a common nickname among fans), is a sport and martial art in which two participants of similar weight fight each other with their fists in a series of one to three-minute intervals called "rounds". In both Olympic and professional divisions, the combatants (called boxers or fighters) avoid their opponent's punches while trying to land punches of their own. Points are awarded for clean, solid blows to the legal area on the front of the opponent's body above the waistline, with hits to the head and torso being especially valuable. The fighter with the most points after the scheduled number of rounds is declared the winner. Victory may also be achieved if the opponent is knocked down and unable to get up before the referee counts to ten (a Knockout, or KO) or if the opponent is deemed too injured to continue (a Technical Knockout, or TKO). For record-keeping purposes, a TKO is usually counted as a knockout when calculating the total knockouts.

 

Origins

Youths boxing in a Minoan fresco on the Greek island of Santorini

Youths boxing in a Minoan fresco on the Greek island of Santorini

Archaeological evidence suggests boxing existed in North Africa as early as 4000 BC[citation needed] and had also developed in the Mediterranean by 1500 BC.

Around 900 BC a mythical Greek ruler named Theseus allegedly invented a form of boxing in which two men seated face to face, would beat each other with their fists until one of them was killed. In time, the boxers began to fight while standing and wear gloves (with spikes) and wrappings on their arms below the elbows, although otherwise they were competed naked.

First accepted as an Olympic sport (the ancient Greeks called it Pygme/ Pygmachia) in 688 BC, participants trained on punching bags (called a korykos). Fighters wore leather straps (called himantes) over their hands, wrists, and sometimes breast, to protect them from injury. The straps left their fingers free.

In Ancient Rome, fighters were usually criminals and slaves who hoped to become champions and gain their freedom; however, free men also fought. Eventually, fist fighting became so popular that even aristocrats started fighting, but the practice was eventually banned by the caesar Augustus. In 500 A.D., the sport was banned altogether by christian Theodoric the Great. [1]

 

London Prize Ring rules (1743)

The beginnings of the modern right cross demonstrated in Edmund Price's The Science of Self Defense: A Treatise on Sparring and Wrestling, 1867

The beginnings of the modern right cross demonstrated in Edmund Price's The Science of Self Defense: A Treatise on Sparring and Wrestling, 1867

Records of boxing activity disappeared after the fall of the Roman Empire. The sport would later resurface in England during the early 18th century in the form of bare-knuckle boxing sometimes referred to as prizefighting. The first documented account of a bare-knuckle fight in England appeared in 1681 in the London Protestant Mercury, and the first English bare-knuckle champion was James Figg in 1719.[2] This is also the time when the word "boxing" first came to be used.

Early bare-knuckle fighting was crude with no written rules. There were no weight divisions or round limits, and no referee. Modern rules banning gouging, grappling, biting, headbutting, fish-hooking and blows below the belt were absent.

The first boxing rules, called the London Prize Ring rules, were introduced by heavyweight champion Jack Broughton in 1743 to protect fighters in the ring where deaths sometimes occurred.[3] Under these rules, if a man went down and could not continue after a count of 30 seconds, the fight was over. Hitting a downed fighter and grasping below the waist were prohibited. Broughton also invented, and encouraged the use of "mufflers" a form of padded gloves, which were used in training and exhibitions.

Although bare-knuckle fighting was in almost every aspect far more brutal than modern boxing, it did allow the fighters a single advantage not enjoyed by today's boxers: The London Prize Rules permitted the fighter to drop to one knee to begin a 30-second count at any time. Thus a fighter realizing he was in trouble had an opportunity to recover. Intentionally going down in modern boxing will cause the recovering fighter to lose points in the scoring system.

In 1838, the London Prize Ring rules were expanded in detail. Later revised in 1853, they stipulated the following:[4]

  • Fights occurred in a 24-foot-square ring surrounded by ropes.
  • If a fighter was knocked down, he had to rise within 30 seconds under his own power to be allowed to continue.
  • Biting, headbutting and hitting below the belt were declared fouls.

 

Marquess of Queensberry rules (1867)

In 1867, the Marquess of Queensberry rules were drafted by John Chambers for amateur championships held at Lillie Bridge in London for Lightweights, Middleweights and Heavyweights. The rules were published under the patronage of the Marquess of Queensberry, whose name has always been associated with them.

There were twelve rules in all, and they specified that fights should be "a fair stand-up boxing match" in a 24-foot-square ring. Rounds were three minutes long with one minute rest intervals between rounds. Each fighter was given a ten-second count if he was knocked down and wrestling was banned.

The introduction of gloves of "fair-size" also changed the nature of the bouts. An average pair of boxing gloves resembles a bloated pair of mittens and are laced up around the wrists. Gloves protected the hands of both fighters but their considerable size and weight made knock-out victories more difficult to achieve.[5] As a result, bouts became longer and more strategic with greater importance attached to defensive maneuvers such as slipping, bobbing, countering and angling.

The English case of R v. Coney in 1882 found that a bare-knuckle fight was an assault occasioning actual bodily harm, despite the consent of the participants. This marked the end of widespread public bare-knuckle contests in England.

The first world heavyweight champion under the Queensberry Rules was "Gentleman Jim" Corbett, who defeated John L. Sullivan in 1892 at the Pelican Athletic Club in New Orleans.[6]

With the gradual acceptance of formalised rules, two distinct branches of boxing emerged; Professional and Olympic. The boxing rules enforced by governing bodies worldwide today at the local, national and international level are all derived in some way from the Marquess of Queensberry Rules.

Olympic boxing

Headgear is mandatory in Olympic boxing

Headgear is mandatory in Olympic boxing

Main article: Amateur boxing

Olympic (or Amateur) boxing is found at the Olympic Games and Commonwealth Games. Olympic boxing has point scoring system rather than physical damage or knockouts. Bouts comprise of four rounds of two minutes in Olympic and Commonwealth, and three rounds of two minutes in a national ABA (Amateur Boxing association) bout, each with a one-minute interval between rounds.

Competitors wear protective headgear and gloves with a white strip across the knuckle. A punch is considered a scoring punch only when the boxers connect with the white portion of the gloves. Each punch that lands on the head or torso is awarded a point. A referee monitors the fight to ensure that competitors use only legal blows (a belt worn over the torso represents the lower limit of punches - any boxer repeatedly landing "low blows" is disqualified). Referees also ensure that the boxers don't use holding tactics to prevent the opponent from swinging (if this occurs, the referee separates the opponents and orders them to continue boxing. Repeated holding can result in a boxer being penalized, or ultimately, disqualified). Referees will stop the bout if a boxer is seriously injured, if one boxer is significantly dominating the other or if the score is severely imbalanced.[7]

 

Women's Boxing

Main article: women's boxing

Women's boxing first appeared in the Olympic Games at a demonstration bout in 1904. For most of the 20th century, however, it was banned in most nations. Its revival was pioneered by the Swedish Amateur Boxing Association, which sanctioned events for women in 1988. The British Amateur Boxing Association sanctioned its first boxing competition for women in 1997. The first event was to be between two thirteen-year-olds, but one of the boxers withdrew because of hostile media attention. Four weeks later, an event was held between two sixteen-year-olds. The A.I.B.A. accepted new rules for Women's Boxing at the end of the 20th century and approved the first European Cup for Women in 1999 and the first World Championship for women in 2001. Women's boxing will not be at the 2008 Olympics, and it is very unlikely to become an official Olympic sport at the 2012 Olympics.[8] Although women fought professionally in many countries, in the United Kingdom the B.B.B.C. refused to issue licences to women until 1998. By the end of the century, however, they had issued five such licenses. The first sanctioned bout between women was in November 1998 at Streatham in London, between Jane Crouch and Simona Lukic.

 

Professional boxing

Main article: Professional boxing

Professional bouts are far longer than Olympic bouts (ranging from four to twelve rounds, however there are some two or three rounds[19] [20] [21], the championship limit of 12 rounds exists since the late 1980's when it was shortened from fifteen rounds in an effort to increase fighter safety), headgear is not permitted, and boxers are generally allowed to take much more punishment before a fight is halted. At any time, however, the referee may stop the contest if he believes that one participant cannot intelligently defend him or herself due to injury. In that case, the other participant is awarded a technical knockout win, which appears on the boxer's record as a knockout win (or loss). A technical knockout would also be awarded if a fighter lands a punch that opens a cut on the opponent, and the opponent is later deemed not fit to continue by a doctor because of the cut. For this reason, fighters often employ cutmen, whose job is to treat cuts between rounds so that the boxer is able to continue despite the cut. If a boxer simply quits fighting, or if his corner stops the fight, then the winning boxer is also awarded a technical knockout victory. In contrast with amateur boxing, professional male boxers have to be bare chested[9]

Mike Tyson on the cover of Time Magazine in 1988.

Mike Tyson on the cover of Time Magazine in 1988.

 

Evolution of professional boxing

In 1891, the National Sporting Club (N.S.C.), a private club in London, began to promote professional glove fights at its own premises, and created nine of its own rules to augment the Queensberry Rules. These rules specified more accurately the role of the officials, and produced a system of scoring that enabled the referee to decide the result of a fight. The British Boxing Board of Control (B.B.B.C.) was first formed in 1919 with close links to the N.S.C., and was re-formed in 1929 after the N.S.C. closed.[10]

In 1909, the first of twenty-two belts were presented by the fifth Earl of Lonsdale to the winner of a British title fight held at the N.S.C. In 1929, the B.B.B.C. continued to award Lonsdale belts to any British boxer who won three title fights in the same weight division. The "title fight" has always been the focal point in professional boxing. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, however, there were title fights at each weight. Promoters who could stage profitable title fights became influential in the sport, as did boxers' managers. The best promoters and managers have been instrumental in bringing boxing to new audiences and provoking media and public interest. The most famous of all two-way partnership (fighter-manager-promoter) was that of Jack Dempsey (Heavyweight Champion, 1919-1926), and the promoter Tex Rickard. Together they grossed US$ 8.4 million in only five fights between 1921 and 1927 and ushered in a "golden age" of popularity for professional boxing in the 1920s.[11] They were also responsible for the first live radio broadcast of a title fight (Dempsey v. Georges Carpentier, in 1921). In the United Kingdom, Jack Solomons' success as a fight promoter helped re-establish professional boxing after the Second World War and made the UK a popular place for title fights in the 1950s and 1960s.

In the first part of the 20th century, the U.S.A. became the centre for professional boxing. It was generally accepted that the "world champions" were those listed by the Police Gazette.[12] After 1920, the National Boxing Association (N.B.A.) began to sanction "title fights".[13] Also during that time, Ring Magazine was founded, and it listed champions and awarded championship belts. The N.B.A. was renamed in 1962 and became the World Boxing Association (W.B.A.). The following year, a rival body, the World Boxing Council (W.B.C.), was formed.[14] In 1983, another world body, the International Boxing Federation (I.B.F.) was formed. By the end of the 20th century, a boxer had to be recognized by the three separate bodies to be the "Undisputed World Champion". Regional sanctioning bodies such as the North American Boxing Federation, the North American Boxing Council and the United States Boxing Association also awarded championships. Ring Magazine also continued listing the World Champion of each weight division, and its rankings continue being of the most appreciated by fans.

Boxing styles


 

There are three generally accepted boxing styles that are used to define fighters. They are the in-fighter, the out-fighter and the brawler.

 

Inside-fighter

In-fighters are often considered the most exciting boxers to watch (Philly-Shell). This style favours closing inside an opponent, overwhelming them with intensity and flurries of hooks and uppercuts. They tend to be agile on their feet which can make them difficult to evade for a slower fighter.

 

Outside-fighter

Out-fighters (also known as an "out-boxer" or "boxer") are the opposite of the in-fighter. Where the in-fighter tries to close the gap between himself and his opponent, the out-fighter seeks to maintain that gap and fight with faster, longer range punches. Since they rely on the weaker jabs and straights (as opposed to hooks and uppercuts), they tend to win by points decisions rather than by knockout, although some out-fighters have notable knockout records. They attempt to control the fight by using their jab to keep their opponent at range, and using their strong footwork to evade any opponent that closes in. In fact, outside fighters are known for being extremely quick on their feet, which often makes up for their relative lack of power. Out-fighters are often regarded as the best boxers on account of their desire to win a fight by wearing an opponent down and outclassing an opponent by strategy, rather than simply knocking him (or her) out.

 

Brawler

If the out-fighter represents everything classy about boxing, the brawler (also known as the 'slugger', 'hard hitter' or 'one puncher') often stands for everything that's brutal and dirty in the sport. Sluggers tend to lack finesse in the ring, but make up for it in raw power, often able to knock almost any opponent out with a single punch. This ability makes them exciting to watch, and their fights unpredictable. Many brawlers tend to lack mobility in the ring and have difficulty pursuing fighters who are fast on their feet. They prefer the harder, slower punches (such as hooks and uppercuts) and tend to ignore combination punching. Their slowness and predictable punching patterns (single punches with obvious leads) often leaves them open for counterpunching.

 

Hybrid boxers

These styles are merely archetypes that many boxers fall into. However, some notable fighters transcend any one category. Mike Tyson, although known primarily as a brawler, was a very intense in-fighter in the first half of his career. He had the strength of a brawler, but the combinations, agility and ferocity of an in-fighter, which earned him his devastating reputation.

 

Swarmer

A less common style of boxing, the swarmer is a boxer who attempts to overwhelm his opponent by applying constant pressure. Swarmers tend to have a very good bob and weave, good power, a good chin, and a tremendous punch output. Boxers who use the swarmer style tend to have shorter careers than those who don't because the amount of punishment taken while trying to get past opponents guard is very high.

 

Rock, Paper, Scissors

There is a commonly accepted theory about the success each of these boxing styles has against the others. This is merely a theory and it has been disproven several times, although it serves as a decent guide. The general rule is similar to the game Rock, Paper, Scissors - each boxing style has advantages over one, but disadvantages against the other. A famous cliché amongst boxing fans and writers is "styles make fights".

Main article: Boxing styles and technique#Rock.2C Paper.2C Scissors

Equipment

Boxing techniques utilize very forceful strikes with the hand. There are many bones in the hand, and striking surfaces without proper technique can cause serious hand injuries. Today, most trainers do not allow boxers to train and spar without hand/wrist wraps and gloves. Handwraps are used to secure the bones in the hand, and the gloves are used to protect the hands from blunt injury, allowing boxers to throw punches with more force than if they did not utilize them.

Headgear, used in Olympic boxing, protects against cuts, scrapes, and swelling, but does not protect very well against concussions. Headgear does not sufficiently protect the brain from the jarring that occurs when the head is struck with great force. Also, most boxers aim for the chin on opponents, and the chin is usually not padded. Thus, a powerpunch can do a lot of damage to a boxer, and even a jab that connects to the chin can cause damage, regardless of whether or not headgear is being utilized.

 

Technique


 

The modern boxing stance is a reflection of the current system of rules employed by professional boxing. It differs in many ways from the typical boxing stances of the 19th and early 20th centuries. It's been stated that Americans adopted a more upright vertical armed guard (as opposed to more horizontally held, knuckles facing the ground guard as seen when looking at early 20th century boxers such as Jack Johnson) due to the Americans' confrontations with the Filipino natives as a result of the Philippines Spanish-American War[citation needed]. When engaged in hand to hand combat, the Filipinos would slash the wrists of the American soldiers, the Americans adapted by changing the guarded stance and thus just one example of a boxing technicality evolving.


Modern Boxing Techniques

The following stance applies for a right-handed boxer. The boxer stands with the legs shoulder-width apart with the right foot a half-step behind the left foot. The left (lead) fist is held vertically about six inches in front of the face at eye level. The right (rear) fist is held beside the chin and the elbow tucked against the ribcage to protect the body. The chin is tucked into the chest to avoid punches to the jaw which commonly cause knock-outs. Modern boxers can sometimes be seen "tapping" their cheeks or foreheads with their fists in order to remind themselves to keep their hands up (which becomes difficult during long bouts). Modern boxers are taught to "push off" with their feet in order to move effectively. Forward motion involves lifting the lead leg and pushing with the rear leg. Rearward motion involves lifting the rear leg and pushing with the lead leg. During lateral motion the leg in the direction of the movement moves first while the opposite leg provides the force needed to move the body.

 

Punches

There are four basic punches in boxing: the Jab, Cross, Hook and Uppercut. If a boxer is right-handed, his left hand is the lead hand, his right hand is the rear hand. The following techniques apply to a right-handed boxer. A right-handed boxer's handedness is commonly described as orthodox. A left-handed boxer is called an unorthodox boxer or a Southpaw.

  • Jab - A quick, straight punch thrown with the lead hand from the guard position. The jab is accompanied by a small, clockwise rotation of the torso and hips, while the fist rotates 90 degrees, becoming horizontal upon impact. As the punch reaches full extension, the lead shoulder is brought up to guard the chin. The rear hand remains next to the face to guard the jaw. After making contact with the target, the lead hand is retracted quickly to resume a guard position in front of the face. The jab is the most important punch in a boxer's arsenal because it provides a fair amount of its own cover and it leaves the least amount of space for a counterpunch from the opponent. It has the longest reach of any punch and does not require commitment or large weight transfers. Due to its relatively weak power, the jab is often used as a tool to gauge distances, probe an opponent's defenses, and set up heavier, more powerful punches. A half-step may be added, moving the entire body into the punch, for additional power.
  • Cross - A powerful straight punch thrown with the rear hand. From the guard position, the rear hand is thrown from the chin, crossing the body and traveling towards the target in a straight line. The rear shoulder is thrust forward and finishes just touching the outside of the chin. At the same time, the lead hand is retracted and tucked against the face to protect the inside of the chin. For additional power, the torso and hips are rotated counter-clockwise as the cross is thrown. Weight is also transferred from the rear foot to the lead foot, resulting in the rear heel turning outwards as it acts as a fulcrum for the transfer of weight. Body rotation and the sudden weight transfer is what gives the cross its power. Like the jab, a half-step forward may be added. After the cross is thrown, the hand is retracted quickly and the guard position resumed. It can be used to counterpunch a jab, aiming for the opponent's head (or a counter to a cross aimed at the body) or to set up a hook. The cross can also follow a jab, creating the classic "one-two combo." The cross is also called a "straight" or "right."
  • Hook - A semi-circular punch thrown with the lead hand to the side of the opponent's head. From the guard position, the elbow is drawn back with a horizontal fist (knuckles pointing forward) and the elbow bent. The rear hand is tucked firmly against the jaw to protect the chin. The torso and hips are rotated clockwise, propelling the fist through a tight, clockwise arc across the front of the body and connecting with the target. At the same time, the lead foot pivots clockwise, turning the left heel outwards. Upon contact, the hook's circular path ends abruptly and the lead hand is pulled quickly back into the guard position. A hook may also target the lower body (the classic Mexican hook to the liver) and this technique is sometimes called the "rip" to distinguish it from the conventional hook to the head. The hook may also be thrown with the rear hand.
  • Uppercut - A vertical, rising punch thrown with the rear hand. From the guard position, the torso shifts slightly to the right, the rear hand drops below the level of the opponent's chest and the knees are bent slightly. From this position, the rear hand is thrust upwards in a rising arc towards the opponent's chin or torso. At the same time, the knees push upwards quickly and the torso and hips rotate counter-clockwise and the rear heel turns outward, mimicking the body movement of the cross. The strategic utility of the uppercut depends on its ability to "lift" the opponent's body, setting it off-balance for successive attacks. The right uppercut followed by a left hook is a devastating combination.

These different punching types can be combined to form 'combos', like a jab and cross combo. Nicknamed the one two combo, it is a really effective combination because the jab blinds the opponent and the cross is powerful enough to knock the opponent out.[15]

 

Defense

  • Slip - Slipping rotates the body slightly so that an incoming punch passes harmlessly next to the head.
  • Bob and Weave - Bobbing moves the head laterally and beneath an incoming punch. As the opponent's punch arrives, the boxer bends the legs quickly and simultaneously shifts the body either slightly right or left. Once the punch has been evaded, the boxer "weaves" back to an upright position, emerging on either the outside or inside of the opponent's still-extended arm. To move outside the opponent's extended arm is called "bobbing to the outside". To move inside the opponent's extended arm is called "bobbing to the inside".
  • Parry/Block - Parrying or blocking uses the boxer's hands as defensive tools to deflect incoming attacks. As the opponent's punch arrives, the boxer delivers a sharp, lateral, open-handed blow to the opponent's wrist or forearm, redirecting the punch.
  • The Cover-Up - Covering up is the last opportunity to avoid an incoming strike to an unprotected face or body. Generally speaking, the hands are held high to protect the head and chin and the forearms are tucked against the torso to impede body shots. When protecting the body, the boxer rotates the hips and lets incoming punches "roll" off the guard. To protect the head, the boxer presses both fists against the front of the face with the forearms parallel and facing outwards. This type of guard is weak against attacks from below.
  • The Clinch - Clinching is a rough form of grappling and occurs when the distance between both fighters has closed and straight punches cannot be employed. In this situation, the boxer attempts to hold or "tie up" the opponent's hands so he is unable to throw hooks or uppercuts. To perform a clinch, the boxer loops both hands around the outside of the opponent's shoulders, scooping back under the forearms to grasp the opponent's arms tightly against his own body. In this position, the opponent's arms are pinned and cannot be used to attack. Clinching is a temporary match state and is quickly dissipated by the referee.

 

In the ring

Boxers generally attempt to land short, fast combinations and then quickly shift position to avoid a possible response by their opponent. Strategically, the ring's centre is a desired position since a boxer is able to conserve movement by forcing the opponent to circle around them. When in the centre, the boxer is also less likely to be knocked backwards against the ropes surrounding the ring and cornered.

Medical concerns

It should be noted that knocking a person unconscious or even causing concussion will always cause some permanent brain damage.[16] Furthermore, there is no clear division between the force required to knock out a human and an amount of force which will kill them. More than 350 amateur and professional boxers have been killed in the ring since 1945.[citation needed]

As was in the case of Duk Koo Kim who on November 13th 1982 was killed in the ring by Ray "Boom Boom" Mancini. [22]

In 1983, The Journal of the American Medical Association called for a ban on boxing. The editor, Dr. George Lundberg, called boxing an "obscenity" that "should not be sanctioned by any civilized society." Since then, the American Neurological Association, American Academy of Neurology and British, Canadian and Australian Medical Associations have also wanted to abolish the sport.[citation needed]

Many support the ban because it seems that causing injury to another athlete is the goal of the sport. Dr. Bill O'Neill, boxing spokesman for the British Medical Association, has supported the BMA's proposed ban on boxing: "It is the only sport where the intention is to inflict serious injury on your opponent, and we feel that we must have a total ban on boxing."[17]

 

Fatalities versus brain injury

Anti-boxing activist Manuel Velazquez compiled extensive data on deaths in boxing.[18]

In 1984, R.J. McCunney and P.K. Russo published a study entitled Brain Injuries in Boxing. The study argued that boxing is relatively safe compared to other sports by citing the following figures on U.S. sports fatalities:

Fatality rates per 100,000 participants

  1. Horse racing: 128
  2. Sky diving: 123
  3. Hang gliding: 56
  4. Mountaineering: 51
  5. Scuba Diving: 11
  6. Motorcycle racing: 7
  7. College Football: 3
  8. Boxing: 1.3

Dr. Lundberg replied: "It's not the deaths but the chronic brain damage that is so frequent." The AMA reports brain deterioration in three out of four boxers who have twenty or more professional fights.

To date, there has been little research regarding the long-term effects of amateur boxing.

History of Professional Boxing

Main Article: The History of Professional Boxing

 

Boxing Hall of Fame

The sport of boxing has two internationally recognized boxing hall of fames; the International Boxing Hall of Fame (IBHOF) and the World Boxing Hall of Fame (WBHF), with the IBHOF being the more widely recognized boxing hall of fame.

The WBHF was founded by Everett L. Sanders in 1980. Since its inception the WBHOF has never had a permanent location or museum, which has allowed the more recent IBHOF to garner more publicity and prestige.

Boxing's International Hall of Fame was inspired by a tribute an American town held for two local heroes in 1982. The town, Canastota, New York, (which is about 15 miles east of Syracuse, via the New York State Thruway), honored former world welterweight/middleweight champion Carmen Basilio and his nephew, former world welterweight champion Billy Backus. The people of Canastota raised money for the tribute which inspired the idea of creating an official, annual hall of fame for notable boxers.

The International Boxing Hall of Fame opened in Canastota in 1989. The first inductees in 1990 included Jack Johnson, Benny Leonard, Jack Dempsey, Henry Armstrong, Sugar Ray Robinson, Archie Moore, and Muhammad Ali. Other world-class figures include Roberto "Manos de Piedra" Duran, Ismael Laguna, Eusebio Pedroza, Carlos Monzon, Azumah Nelson, Rocky Marciano, Pipino Cuevas and Ken Buchanan. The Hall of Fame's induction ceremony is held every June as part of a four-day event.

The fans who come to Canastota for the Induction Weekend are treated to a number of events, including scheduled autograph sessions, boxing exhibitions, a parade featuring past and present inductees, and the induction ceremony itself.

Governing bodies

Boxing has many governing bodies leaving no organization in overall control.

 

Professional boxing

Governing Body Website
British Boxing Board of Control (BBBofC) http://www.bbbofc.com/
Nevada State Athletic Commission http://boxing.nv.gov/
Sanctioning Body Website
World Boxing Association (W.B.A.) http://www.wbaonline.com/
World Boxing Council (W.B.C.) http://www.wbcboxing.com/
International Boxing Federation (I.B.F.) http://www.ibf-usba-boxing.com/
World Boxing Organization (W.B.O.) http://www.wbo-int.com/
International Boxing Organization (I.B.O.) http://www.iboboxing.com/

 

Amateur boxing

Governing Body Website
Association Internationale de Boxe Amateur
(International Amateur Boxing Association) (A.I.B.A.)
http://www.aiba.net/


 

When We Were Kings

When We Were Kings

 

Boxing in popular culture

Main Article: Boxing in popular culture

 

See also

 

References

Cited references
  1. ^ BBC. The origins of Boxing, BBC History [1]
  2. ^ James B. Roberts and Alexander G. Skutt (1999). James Figg, IBOHF [2]
  3. ^ John Rennie (2006) East London Prize Ring Rules 1743[3]
  4. ^ Clay Moyle and Arly Allen (2006), 1838 Prize Rules[4]
  5. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica (2006). Queensbury Rules, Britannica[5]
  6. ^ Tracy Callis (2006). James Corbett, Cyberboxingzone.com [6]
  7. ^ Andrew Eisele (2005). Olympic Boxing Rules, About.com [7]
  8. ^ Andrew Eisele (2006). Women's Boxing, About.com [8]
  9. ^ Bert Randolph Sugar (2001). "Boxing," World Book Online Americas Edition[9]
  10. ^ Evolution of Boxing, Boxing-gyms.com[10]
  11. ^ Jack Dempsey Profile, Bocrec.com[11]
  12. ^ Britannica. Police Gazette, Britannicaonline Online[12]
  13. ^ Angel M. Bastidas. WBA History, Wbaonline.com [13]
  14. ^ Piero Pini and Professor Ramón G. Velásquez (2006). History & Founding Fathers WBCboxing[14]
  15. ^ Leo Cardenas (2006). Video Instruction of How to Throw a Jab Cross Combo expertvillage.com[15]
  16. ^ BBC. Boxing Brain Damage, BBC News[16]
  17. ^ BBC, News on Boxing Ban, BBC Online[17]
  18. ^ Joseph R. Svinth (2006). Deaths in Boxing, Journal of Combative Sport[18]

General references

  • Accidents Take Lives of Young Alumni (July/August 2005). Illinois Alumni, 18(1), 47.
  • Robert Anasi (2003). The Gloves: A Boxing Chronicle. North Point Press. ISBN 0-865-47652-7
  • Fleischer, Nat, Sam Andre, Nigel Collins, Dan Rafael (2002). An Illustrated History of Boxing. Citadel Press. ISBN 0-806-52201-1
  • Fox, James A. (2001). Boxing. Stewart, Tabori and Chang. ISBN 1-584-79133-0
  • Halbert, Christy (2003). The Ultimate Boxer: Understanding the Sport and Skills of Boxing. Impact Seminars, Inc. ISBN 0-963-09685-0
  • Hatmaker, Mark (2004). Boxing Mastery : Advanced Technique, Tactics, and Strategies from the Sweet Science. Tracks Publishing. ISBN 1-884-65421-5
  • McIlvanney, Hugh (2001). The Hardest Game : McIlvanney on Boxing. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-658-02154-0
  • Myler, Patrick (1997). A Century of Boxing Greats: Inside the Ring with the Hundred Best Boxers. Robson Books (UK) / Parkwest Publications (US). ISBN 1-861-05258-8.
  • Silverman, Jeff (2004). he Greatest Boxing Stories Ever Told : Thirty-Six Incredible Tales from the Ring. The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-592-28479-5
  • U.S. Amateur Boxing Inc. (1994). Coaching Olympic Style Boxing. Cooper Pub Group. 1-884-12525-5
  • Gunn M, Ormerod D. The legality of boxing. Legal Studies. 1995;15:181.

 

Boxing associations

 


 

 

 

(Good Reading)

Vermont Boxing History & International Pugilist Review, http://esf.uvm.edu/vtbox, Copyright © 1997-2004, Robert Winkler


vtbox© - is a subsidiary of MEWPress International, Burlington, Vermont, U.S.A.

History Worth Repeating


1742, London, England. Jack Broughton's (English champion for 18 years) amphitheatre built behind Oxford Road. (He introduces padded gloves and rules of boxing - Niles Weekly Register, Baltimore, 1823; Published by Hezekia Niles 1811-1849).

Wednesday, April 11, 1750. Was fought the grand boxing match between the famous Broughton, owner of the amphitheatre, hiterto invincible, and Slack the butcher of Norwich; before they began, Broughton gave Slack 10 guineas to fight him according to his promise, which Slack immediately betted against 100 guineas offer'd against him. The first 2 minutes the odds were 20 to 1 on Broughtons head, but Slack soon recovering himself beat his adversary blind, and following his blows obtain'd a compleat victory in 14 minutes, to the great mortification of the knowing ones, who were finely taken in, particularly a peer of the first rank, who betting 10 to 1 lost 1000 L. The money received at the door was besides 200 tickets at a guinea, and half a guinea each, and as the battle was for the whole house, 'tis thought that the victor cleared 600 L.
Gentleman's Magazine, Volume 20: Historical Chronicle, April 1750, p. 184.

1790, Schools opened in England to teach boxing.

1791, London, England. Daniel Mendoza opens at the Lyceum in the Strand.
Lewis, Charlton T., ed. Harper's Book of Facts. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1906. [London Times column from January 1, 1790 contradicts date - T.M.Byrd]


January 31, 1811, Boxing, Etc.- A most sanguinary battle for 100 guineas, and a subscription purse of twenty, in imitation of the London amateurs, was fought on Monday, in the presence of an immense concourse of spectators at Hazely common, Hants, between an Oxfordshire man of the name of Woodcock, and a professional bruiser of fame in the county of Somerset of the name of Tring, who was backed by the amateur Capt. Hicks. In the first round which lasted four minutes, Tring was knocked down after a dreadful conflict, and the two sebsequent rounds were as courageously maintained. In the fourth round both combatants were blind, and they fought in that state twenty minutes, when Tring[e] got a broken jaw, and was beaten nearly lifeless.


A fatal pugilistic contest took place on Wednesday sevennight, at Rollestone, near Burton upon Trent, in the county of Stafford. On the preceding evening, Charles Beale, a farmer from Strenton, and Stringer Tonks, a basket-maker, of Repton, having quarrelled, agreed to meet the next day at Rollestone, to decide their dispute. The constable of the parish was present as stakeholder! The combatants fought with a determination and courage seldom witnessed, until the 31st round, when Tonks struck Beale a dreadful blow under the ear, and death terminated the fight.
(Plattsburgh) Republican, Vol. 1, No. 8, Friday, May 31, 1811, p. 2


November 22, 1811, Impromptu - On the death of James Belcher, the pugilist, after a lingering illness.
Jem so many stout bruisers had tired out of breath,
Then, after long training, he set to with DEATH;
But in the last round, the grim king with a grin,
Hit Jem on the gullet, and Jemmy gave in.
(Plattsburgh) Republican, Volume 1, Number 33, Friday, November 22, 1811 , p. 3.


1816 - First distinct match in the United States was that of Jacob Hyer (father of Tom Hyer - see February 7, 1849) and Thomas Beasley (claims American heavyweight championship), who parted as friends.
Lewis, Charlton T., ed., Harper's Book of Facts. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1906.


July 26, 1817, "Late From Europe" from the New York Advertiser
Pugilism - In consequence of two deaths by prize fighting, vigorous measures have been taken in London to put a stop to this demoralizaing practice, which the papers inform us is favorable to thieves and pickpockets.
Plattsburgh Republican, Volume VII, Number 17, Saturday, July 26, 1817, p. 2


August 23, 1817 - Argus (Albany, New York) Summary
The lovers of sport in London were agreeably entertained not long since by two of their best boxers. They had the satisfaction of seeing one of these fellows maul his antagonist so severely that he died in a few minutes.
Plattsburgh Republican, Volume VII, Number 21, Saturday, August 23, 1817, p. 2


December 6, 1817, Argus (Albany, New York) Summary
A young man was killed the other day in New York (City), in a boxing match.
Plattsburgh Republican, Volume VII, Number 36, Saturday, December 6, 1817, p. 2


March 15, 1823. "The Champion Again" - Tom Crib [British heavyweight champion - 1805 -1811?] - the upright and down-right - or the down and the upright Tom Crib, made his bow before the magistrate yesterday, as the friend and protector of the helpless and the stranger, in the person of the little German dwarf, John Hauptman. This little fellow John Hauptman, whose extreme altitude is only 40 inches, obtained a living during many years by hiring himself out as an exhibition to itinerant showmen. But his day has long gone by - other and more youthful dwarfs have superseded him in the public favour; poverty was pressing heavily on his little head, when, in the midst of his destitution, accident led him to the hospitable fireside of Tom Crib. The gallant Champion listened to his still, small tale of wo(e), cheered his little frame with the comforts of his bar and his larder, and told him he was welcome to stay at the "Union Arms" till he could find a better shelter. He has now continued to reside there many months; and nothing can give greater offence to the Champion than an insult offerd to the dwarf. It seems, however, that a drunken hackney-coach master, named Beckett, during the Champion's absence from home on Monday afternoon, not only insulted the little fellow, but encouraged his son, a lad of about ten years old, to beat him; and for this outrage on his protege the Champion now sought redress. Upon his information, a warrant was issued against Beckett and his son, and yesterday they were brought before the magistrate to answer for it. The fullspread, towering, hero of the ring, entered the office leading his tiny friend by the hand; and he and the lad hav(ing) been placed side by side on a stool before the bench, the Champion stated what he had heard of the transaction, adding - "The little fellow has no friend in the world but me, your Worship, and hang it if I would not rather nave been beat myself." "That would not have been so easy a matter, Mr. Crib," observed his worship, and directed the dwarf to be sworn. The little fellow then gave a very humble and modest account of the affair. He said, in tolerable English, that he was very sorry anybody should be troubled on his account; but Mr. Beckett would not be satisfied unless he would fight with the boy and because he would not, he urged the boy on till he knocked him down by a blow on de mout, which cut him var mosh, and hurt him a good deal. The lad merely pulled out his shirt frill in reply, and the father delivered his defense thus: "It was the brandy and water that did it, your worship; I'll tell the truth: it was the brandy and water sure enough. I have known Mr. Crib years." - "And that's one reason you ought not to have taken advantage of my absence, to insult a poor little fellow you knew I cared so much for" - observed the kindhearted Champion; and the hackneyman held his peace. The magistrate, after having warmly commended (on) the conduct of both the Champion and dwarf, directed the hackneyman to find bail for the assault.
Plattsburgh Republican, Volume XII, Number 51, Saturday, March 15, 1823, p. 4


June 8, 1824, in England. Tom Winter (nicknamed "Spring"), besides other victories, beat Langan - for 1,000 pds.
Lewis, Charlton T., ed. Harper's Book of Facts. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1906.


1835, John Gully, butcher, prize-fighter - M.P. for Pontefract, South York 1835. Died March 9, 1863.
Lewis, Charlton T., ed. Harper's Book of Facts. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1906.


February 7, 1849, "The Great Prize Fight Between Tom Hyer and Yankee Sullivan" [Englishman Frank Ambrose Murray, who came to New York City in 1841]. This great prize fight (for the championship of America) took place on Wednesday the 7th instant (of this month), at Roach's Point, on the Chesapeake; Kent County, Maryland.
The Plattsburgh Republican, Volume XXXIX, Number 32, Saturday, February 17, 1849, p. 2


October 22, 1851, "A Brutal Outrage in Broadway" - We learn that at an early hour yesterday moring, two noted pugilists entered Florence's Hotel, corner of Broadway and Howard street, and without any provocation seized the bar-keeper and beat his face to a jelly. It appears that Thomas Hyer, William Poole, and several others entered the above hotel, and while one of the party held Charles Owens (the bar-keeper) by the hair of his head, another of the gang beat him in the face to such an extent that his left eye was completely ruined and the flesh of his cheek mangled in the most shocking manner. After thus accommplishing the heartless act, all of them made an effort to find Mr. John Florence, the proprietor of the hotel, with a view of serving him in the same manner, but not succedding in their latter design, they found the hat of Mr. Florence and wantonly cut it into strips, and trampled it under their feet. The desperadoes then left the house, and in the meantime Mr. Owens was placed under medical attendance, and in the course of a short time he proceeded to the Jefferson Market Police, in company with Mr. Florence, where they made their affidavits respecting the inhuman outrage, upon which Justice Blakeley issued his warrants for Hyer, Poole, and such of the others who were concerned in the affair, and the same were placed in the hands of officer Baldwin for service. Since the above was written we have been reliably informed that the affray originated from the fact of the barkeeper having refused them drinks, after they had been furnished with them twice in succession.
New York Daily Times, Volume 1, Number 31, Thursday, October 23, 1851, p. 1


January 6, 1852, "A Prize Fight" - We learn that extensive preparations are being made within the sporting circles of our city to attend a great prize fight, which is to come off this day, between Awful Gardener and Dublin Tricks, for a stake of $1,000 on each side. The place selected for this brutal combat is either in Westchester County or some part of the State of Connecticut, and tickets for the excursion and admittance to the fight were selling last night for $5 each. Cannot the authorities of this county or the one in which this bloody scene is to be enacted, take some immediate measures to put a stop to the affair and arrest the participators?
New York Daily Times, Tuesday, January 6, 1852, p. 1


October 12, 1853, "Yankee" Sullivan and John Morrissey fought at Boston Corners, New York - Sullivan defeated. [Sullivan went to California; was arrested by the vigilance commitee in 1856, and died in prison]
Lewis, Charlton T., ed. Harper's Book of Facts. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1906.


Sporting Intelligence - The $2,000 Prize Fight. Yankee Sullivan vs John Morrissey. Thirty-seven Rounds Fought. A Row in and Around the Ring. Dispute as to whom is the Victor.
The excitement was intense during yesterday and last night, in all parts of the City, respecting the great prize fight for a wager of $2,000, between James, or "Yankee" Sullivan and John Morrissey, that was known by certain sporting gents, to have taken place in the interior of Putnam County, New York, bordering on the States of Massachusetts and Vermont. The news spread around the city, to the effect, that the pugilists had been captured by the authorities of some county where they were passing through, but such persons who were posted in this ring contest disclaimed the rumor, and before 12 o'clock, noon, it was ascertained positively that the pugilistic encounter would certainly come off between the hours of 11 o'clock A.M. and 3 P.M., at the ground selected, near Boston Four Corners, on the line of the New-York and Harlem Railroad, about one hundred miles distant from this City. The trains of the Harlem Road were densely crowded on Tuesday afternoon, and yesterday morning, with hundreds of persons, whose curiosity was excited to such a pitch, as to prompt them to abandon their business, families, and all else, for the purpose of witnessing the brutal exhibition in the ring, between the two human beings above named. The cars were, accordingly, heavily laden with passengers, and it is estimated that over three thousand persons from New-York, Brooklyn, Williamsburgh, Jersey City, and surrounding places, left by Railway between the hours of 12 o'clock, M., on Tuesday, and 6 o'clock, A.M., yesterday morning. Last night, all sorts of rumors were afloat in the City as to the result of the combat, and bets were made, varying from $100 to $500, that the fight had not taken place, all of which are of course lost, as the battle was fought, without any attempt, as far as we could learn, of interference by the authorities of the County in which the disgusting scene was enacted. The spot selected for the fight, was a large open lot in the County of Putnam, which is situated on land that seemed to be disputed territory, between this State and Massachusetts, as persons residing in both States claim to be the owners. This being a nice point; it was taken into due consideration by the pugilists and their friends, and accordingly taken advantage of. At the arrival of the Harlem and Hudson River Railroad trains, last night the depot stations were besieged by crowds of persons anxiously inquiring as to the result of the contest. No information of a reliable character could be obtained up to near midnight, but "they did not give it up so," and when the Albany express train arrived, the news of the encounter, was sounded in all directions, and SULLIVAN proclaimed by his friends to be the victor of the fight. Others, who were favorable towards MORRISSEY, declared that he had won the battle, and received a decision in his favor by the Judges and Referee. It appears the pugilists met on the ground at 11 o'clock yesterday morning, amidst an assemblage of some four or five thousand persons, and nothing occurred to disturb them; the ring was formed and they were brought forth by their seconds, who were as follows: For SULLIVAN, ANDEE SHEEHAN, of the Fourth Ward, and WM. WILSON.> 
For MORRISSEY, AWFUL GARDNER and TOM O'DONNELL. The favorite was Morrissey, $100 to $70, and in some instances $100 to $50, before they came to blows. They were both in good condition, and the six weeks training appeared to have improved each of them in both appearance and strength. They walked up face to face, good naturedly smiled, and took their positions apparently in the best feeling. They squared off, and the first blood was drawn by SULLIVAN with a swift tap on MORRISSEY's nose. He followed up his blows in quick succession, and the first round created considerable excitement among the spectators. The rounds were continued on to the Thirty-seventh, occupying fifty-five minutes, when MORRISSEY became very weak, and a general row was the result. Some persons rushed inside of the ring, and several of them received some severe punishment. The only blows SULLIVAN received was about the right side of his face, principally on his cheek bone, and the eye was much swollen.
The face of MORRISSEY was frightfully mutilated, and it is said by those who witnessed the affair, that he also received numerous severe blows on the body, which will no doubt render him disable for a long time.
There is now a dispute as to who was victorious in the contest, and we learn the Judges decided in favor MORRISSEY on the ground of "foul blows," and "not coming to time," &c, &c.
This decision is, however, claimed to be wrong by the opponents of it, and the stake-holder (Jim Hughes) was advised not to give up the $2,000 prize, which he has held in gold coin since the match was made.
It is rumored that SULLIVAN has agreed to place $1,000 additional to the sum already up, and fight the battle over again for the $4,000, in one day or sixty days.
There will probably be great excitement eventually grow(ing) out of this whole matter, on and in half a dozen prize fights.
New-York Daily Times, Vol. III, No. 646, Thursday, October 13, 1853, p. 1



July 27, 1854, Bill Poole, of New York City, defeated John Morrissey, at Amos Dock, New York. [Louis Baker, a friend of Morrissey, shot Poole mortally on February 24, 1855, at Stanwix Hall, 579 Broadway, New York City and took the brig Isabella Jewett for the Canary Islands. George Law, Sr., furnished the clipper ship Grapeshot for pursuit, which intercepted the Jewett April 17, 1855. Baker was brought back and tried, but the jury failed to convict. Poole, who died March 8, 1855, represented the "American" or "Know-nothing" element in New York City, and his funeral, March 11, was largely attended.]
Lewis, Charlton T., ed. Harper's Book of Facts. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1906.


The details of a brutal encounter between noted pugilists occupy space in our columns to-day. The circumstances attending the affair were marked by features of unusual atrocity. It is strange that the Police, who are said to have been cognizant of the preliminary indications, should have permitted this demonstration to transpire, as it did, in broad day, and the very heart of the City.
New-York Daily Times, Vol. III, No. 892, Friday, July 28, 1854, p. 4


Sporting Intelligence - A Prize Fight between John Morrissey and William Poole - Morrissey Terribly Beaten and Left Friendless. The Origin of the Battle - Censorable Conduct of the Ninth Ward Police.
Great excitement was occasioned yesterday in all parts of the City, in consequence of a brutal rough and tumble fight, which took place between the noted pugilists, John Morrissey and William Poole, at the long Steamboat Wharf, foot of Amos street, North River. It appears that for a long time past, POOLE and "Jim" Hughes have been at variance, and during Wednesday afternoon they accidentally met at the City Hotel, corner of Broadway and Howard street, where the matter was amicably arranged. While they were drinking at the bar to renew their friendship, MORRISSEY came in, accompanied by a number of friends. As he approached the counter he looked up and exclaimed, "HUGHES, are you going to give up that stake money that I won on the fight with SULLIVAN?" Mr. HUGHES replied, "I'll give it up when you convince me you won the fight, and not before." To this MORRISSEY made some sarcastic reply. 
Meanwhile POOLE stood still, looking intently at MORRISSEY, and finally remarked in a loud tone, "HUGHES, don't you give it up to him; spend it for rum before you give it to that ~~~~~~." This action on the part of POOLE enraged MORRISSEY, and he retaliated by telling POOLE that he nor any other man should spend his money. The parties then entered into an exceedingly rough argument, when MORRISSEY asked him to fight; POOLE said he would not, that MORRISSEY was too big for him, but if MORRISSEY would bring himself to an equal weight, he would fight him. MORRISSEY said that he did not fight that way; but he had seen the time when he could lick him any way he could name, and then wanted to know how he would fight. POOLE said he would fight with knives. At this answer, MORRISSEY called POOLE aside and told him that he had tried to avoid fighting in that way as much as possible, but as it was his wish he would do it. MORRISSEY then offered to go to Canada, each one to take a friend. This POOLE would not do. MORRISSEY then getting rather excited, told POOLE that he thought he was not doing the fair thing, and that he would like to fight him. POOLE feeling rather vexed at this last answer, said that MORRISSEY had spent half his time in State Prison, and used harsh language. This led to some hard words on the part of MORRISSEY, who offered to bet one thousand dollars to fifty dollars that he could whip POOLE, and offered to fight him within twenty-four hours, at any place he named. This POOLE would not agree to. MORRISSEY then offered to bet him fifty dollars that he dare not meet him in the morining at 7 o'clock, and fight. This POOLE agreed to; and it was settled to meet on the following morning at the foot of Amos street, North River. The match being made bona fide, the parties separated and Mr. POOLE immediately proceeded to Hoboken with a few friends, to stay for the night, to avoid being arrested. At an early hour in the morning, POOLE was up and dressed, and to use his own language, "felt like a race-horse." 

News of the intention of POOLE and MORRISSEY to fight spread like wildfire among the sporting hours during the evening, and heavy bets were made as to the result of the encounter. At 6 1/2 o'clock in the morning a crowd had assembled on Amos street wharf to witness the affray. There could not have been less then three hundred persons present during the progress of the fight, consisting mainly of the "fancy," and the friends and admirers of POOLE and MORRISSEY. A little before 7 o'clock POOLE was rowed up to the dock in a small boat. There were no seconds or bottle-holders, it being understood that the fight was to be what is termed a "rough and tumble" - the advantage, of course, being in favor of the man who first got his opponent down. Prize-fighers being usually before rather than behind time, (as the time had now reached 6 1/2) the prediction was expressed that MORRISSEY would not appear - that he had managed to be arrested by the Police, &c, &c. POOLE expressed a wish that he would come - that he "would fight him like a man" - and thought d~~~~d sight more of the fight than of the money. 

In a few moments, however, all doubt was abandoned, as MORRISSEY walked down the dock, stripped for the occasion, where his antagonist stood to receive him. As he approached, the crowd opened to the right and left, and the shout went up, "Stand back! Let the two men meet!" To this some attention was paid, (perhaps as much as usual in such a fight,) when the parties met, "eagar for the fray." He said, where is POOLE? Here I am, exclaimed POOLE< and both squared, and each eyed his antagonist with a kind of calculating ferocity, moving about for a chance for a half minute, when morrissey put out his left hand, and simultaneously poole dropped, seized his adversary about the body and threw him. in this position they remained, poole uppermost, for about five minutes, when morrissey said, "enough," and the usual shout went up and the parties were speedily separated. the crowd, fearing the police would capture them all, hastily made their way off in various directions, and poole left in the same small boat he came across the river with. 

MORRISSEY, supported by two strangers, left the ground apparently severely injured. Poor MORRISSEY was weakened to such a degree, that he required assistance to get him on his feet at the close of the encounter. His main friend, JOHNNY LING, had in the meantime attempted to draw a revolver from his pocket, but before he could accomplish it one of POOLE'S friends knocked him down. The fight now became general, and for a time the wharf was a scene of the wildest confusion. The friends of POOLE being very numerous, beat MORRISSEY'S friends dreadfully, and LING was taken away almost insensible, and quite prostrated from the great loss of blood. MORRISSEY was then left entirely destitute of friends to aid him in getting home. He finally got into a coach, and was driven to his house in Leonard street, near West Broadway, where he was attended by skillful physicians. He presented a shocking spectacle, and scarely could any of his friends recognize him. His eyes were closed and one of them was found to be gouged from one end of the socket, which injury will probably impair his sight for life. There were large bunches on all parts of his head. His face above and below the eyes is blackened by violent blows given on the bridge of his nose. There is a hole in his cheek, and his lips are chawed up in a frightful manner. He also sustained fearful injuries about his breast, arms, and back, where POOLE kicked him with heavy cow hide boots after he halloed enough. So severe are MORRISSEY'S injuries, that (it) is very doubtful whether he walks in the street for the next six months. 

Account By An Eye-Witness - Subjoined we give an account of the brutal affair, furnished by a person who witnessed it. He says: 

"Yesterday morning, about 7 o'clock, an encounter took place between JOHN MORRISSEY and WILLIAM POOLE on the pier at the foot of Amos street, North River. For some time past MORRISSEY has entertained the idea of attaining the unenviable notority attached to a fighting man. He has frequently challenged HYER to meet him in the ring and settle their animosities by a fisticuff battle. HYER"S good judgment, however, has deterred him from participating in such disgraceful business. It appears that on Wednesday night MORRISSEY and POOLE met in a public house on Broadway. Words ensued relative to the respective merits of HYER and MORRISSEY. The latter offered a wager of fifty dollars to Mr. POOLE that he dared not meet him at 7 o'clock, the next morning, he (MORRISSEY) giving POOLE the choice of ground. POOLE immediately accepted the proposition, and the money was posted. Mr. POOLE, as far as regards size and weight, is much the inferior to MORRISSEY, but he possesses more activity, and is considered a tremendous "rough and tumble" fighter. Some time before the hour arrived for the meeting, POOLE appeared on the pier with a large number of his friends, and offered to bet $3,000 with Mr. ALBURTIS, who was on the pier, that he could whip MORRISSEY or any other man in the world except TOM HYER: that he felt in super fine condition, and if MORRISSEY dared to show his face he would drum him off the dock, or any one else who interfered with him. No one, however, felt disposed to accept his wager. 

At 6 1/2 o'clock, MORRISSEY was seen coming down Amos street unattended and exclaimed, "Where is POOLE?" On being answered that he was on the pier, took off his coat, without taking the precaution of unbuttoning his shirt collar, until reminded to do so by one of his friends, he immediately repaired there. POOLE stood ready to meet him. MORRISSEY struck out - a clinch ensued - MORRISSEY falling heavily with POOLE on top and who took advantage of his positon to deal tremendous blows on MORRISSEY's face, and before they had fought five minutes, MORRISSEY cried "enough." POOLE jumped into his boat, lying at the dock, and rowed away, while MORRISSEY, considerably chop-fallen and awfully bruised and beaten, was obliged to leave the ground amid the jeers and hootings of the assemblage. POOLE also said that he intended to go on an excursion at 7 o'clock, (meaning of course the fight,) that it was the last he expected to take and was only waiting for the boat to arrive but had some doubts whether it would stop at the pier to take him, as that was the last stopping-place. The fight was of very short duration. As soon as they clinched, the crowd gathered around, and it was almost impossible for any one except those within a foot of the belligerents to witness the conflict, which was over in five minutes after the first blow was struck. MORRISSEY left the scene in a light waggon, without a friend to attend to him, and drove off."
New-York Daily Times, Vol. III, No. 892, July 28, 1854, p. 8



February 24, 1855 - Terrible Shooting Affray in Broadway - Bill Poole Fatally Wounded - The Morrissey and Poole Feud - Renewal of Hostilities - Several Persons Severely Wounded.
Broadway, in the vicinity of Prince and Houston-streets, was the scene of an exciting shooting affair about 1 o'clock yesterday morning, which is but a repetition of a similar occurrence that transpired a few weeks ago under Wallack's Theatre between TOM HYER, LEWIS BAKER, JIM TURNER and several other noted pugilists. It appears that about 9 o'clock on Saturday evening, JOHN MORRISSEY and a gang of ruffians entered a saloon at No. 579 Broadway, called the Stanwix Hall, where they met BILL POOLE. As might be expected, an altercation took place. The proprietor of the saloon, Mr. Dean, immediately gave information of the disturbance at the Eight Ward Station-house, and a platoon of Police was forthwith sent to the house, and they succeeded in quieting the belligerents. The crowd then dispersed and went in various directions, though seemingly bent on having a row. They returned to Stanwix Hall just after midnight, where they again encountered POOLE and made a murderous attack upon him. The party was headed by the notorious Californian, JIM TURNER, and was followed by a butcher named CHARLES VAN PELT, PATRICK MCLAUGHLIN, alias "Pargene," (who is now under $5,000 bail for an attempted murder the night prior to the election last Fall,) C. LINN, should fight! and as POOLE was pushing Pargene away, the Californian interfered, while Pargene spit in POOLE's face. This was about to be resented by POOLE, when TURNER aimed a six-barreled revolver at his head, crying out, "Come, draw your weapon," or words to that effect. Scarcely a minute elapsed before TURNER fired, but as he did so he raised his arm and received himself the full charge which was intended for POOLE. He fired off another barrel at POOLE, and the slug took effect in POOLE'S left leg, which weakened him to such a degree that he staggered and fell on the floor. At this moment BAKER jumped on top of POOLE, exclaiming, "I'll put you out of the way now." BAKER was also seen to fire off a pistol in the crowd, but it is not known upon whom the contents took effect. POOLE cried to them not to murder him, but the mob paid but little attention. He was beaten and kicked in a horrible manner. The Police finally came and attempted to arrest the offenders, but failed in the effort, and both MORRISSEY and BAKER are still at large. Meanwhile, POOLE was placed in a carriage and conveyed to his residence in Charles-street, where his wounds were examined by a surgeon, but without finding the ball. Last evening POOLE was visited by Dr. CASTENY, under direction of Coroner HILTON, who thought it might be necessary to hold an ante-mortem examination. The physician returned and reported that POOLE was entirely out of danger. 
A young man named CHARLES LOZIER received a pistol shot in the back during the affray, which will confine him to his room for several weeks. 

BAKER, one of the assailants, was also shot in the breast, but effected his escape. 

About daylight Capt. TURNBULL succeeded in arresting TURNER, Pargene and VAN PELT, at JOHNNY LYNG'S gambling-house, in Canal-street, and they were locked up by order of Justice BRENNAN. Yesterday afternoon an investigation into the facts of the affray was commenced at the Second District Police Court, where the affidavits of some dozen witnesses were taken, but none of them are of sufficient importance to publish at length. In connection with the account above given, we annex the testimony of Mr. DEAN, the proprietor of Stanwix Hall, where the shooting took place. 

THE AFFIDAVIT OF JOHN E. DEAN - John E. Dean, sworn, says: I am keeper of the saloon at No. 579 Broadway, called Stanwix Hall; about 20 minutes after 12 o'clock last night, James Turner, Patrick McLoughlin, alias Pargene, Louis Baker, Charles Van Pelt, and Cornelius Linn, came into my house at the time Poole was standing against the counter, when Pargene approached him, and asked him "Who could lick him," and continued, "Come out doors and fight him;" Poole answered, "You are not worth fighting;" Pargene then seized hold of Poole and insisted upon him to fight; at this period Turner took hold of Pargene and asked him to let go of Poole; Pargene then spit in Poole's face; Turner then pulled his pistol, and exclaimed "Draw;" Poole then stood at the end of the counter, and Pargene was squaring off; Turner then presented his pistol at Poole and fired it off; the charge entered Turner's arm and he fired again; the contents of the pistol on the second firing entered Poole's leg, and he staggered and fell upon the floor; Lewis Baker then fell on top of Poole; I sent for the police, but the fracas was all over when they got there; I saw Baker fire off a pistol, but did not see who the contents struck. 

Since writing the above, we understand that MORRISSEY was taken in custody, but afterwards released by a police officer for some unexplained cause. The Chief of Police has expressed his dissatisfaction at such a proceeding, and is determined to call the policeman to account. 

The Chief of Police and several of the "Shadows" were engaged in council to a late hour last night, devising ways and means for the arrest of the guilty party. POSTSCRIPT - 2 1/2 A. M. - Our reporter has just returned from POOLE'S residence in Christopher-street. POOLE is much worse than in the early part of the evening. The surgeons have not yet succeeded in extracting the ball from his chest, - they say he cannot recover.
New York Daily Times, Vol. IV, No. 1074, Monday, February 26, 1855, p. 1



March 8, 1855 - The Pugilists' Encounter - Death of William Poole - Post-Mortem Examination - Coroner's Investigation
BILL POOLE, who has of late been somewhat notorious, and was wounded with a pistol shot in an affray which occurred at Stanwix Hall on Saturday night, February 25, died yesterday morning from his severe injuries. He breathed his last about 5 o'clock, at his residence, No. 164 Christopher-street, near the North River. A post-mortem examination was held during the day, conducted by Dr. FINNELL. 
An investigation of the facts connected with the late affray, which was the occasion of his death, was begun at noon by Coroner HILTON, at the residence of the deceased. One witness was sworn and partially examined; but the case was adjourned over to today at the Coroner's Office in Chambers-street, in consequence of the want of accommodations for the jury at POOLE'S house. Arrangements are made to have a full hearing, and to dispose of the matter as expeditiously as possible. 

WILLIAM POOLE was born in the year 1821, in Sussex County, New-Jersey; and consequently at the time of his death was 34 years of age. About twenty-three years of his life were, for the most part, spent in the City of New-York. His occupation was that of a butcher, and his place of business was in Washington Market. His father was also a butcher, many years before him, having his stand in the same place; and he is said to have enjoyed the confidence and esteem of the community. BILL POOLE learned the trade with a Mr. WILLIAM BERRIMAN, who is not now living. During the period of his apprenticeship, he was known as a young man of great activity of body and sternness of will. He attended to his business with marked zeal, taking pride in the character of a butcher. But his disposition was not of the most peaceable and forbearing kind, and he found himself in frequent quarrels, both with strangers and those whom he well knew. The butcher-boys called him a "hard customer," and many of them dreaded, while some envied his pugilistic powers. 

In course of time he went into business for himself in Washington Market. His stand there soon became well known, and he received much patronage. But whether as an apprentice in a butcher-stall, or the proprietor of one, he was a fighter, ready for action on all occasions when he fancied he had been insulted; and while his manners, when he was not aroused, were generally marked with much politeness, his spirit was haughty and over-bearing. He was slow to give an insult, being restrained by a feeling of dignified self-respect, which was characteristic of him; but he was quick and fierce to resent an affront. He could not brook an insolent remark from one who thought himself as strong as he. He never was engaged in any formal "prize fight," but he was known as a habitual "rough-and-tumbler." On this account he never, until recently, obtained any great notoriety in the newspaper acoounts of "battles in the ring." His conflict with JOHN MORRISSEY, at the foot of Amos-street, which happened not long ago, brought his name before the public in connection with a brutal and shocking affray; and ever since he has been one of the most notorious pugilists in town. His great reputation among circles of shoulder-hitters, occasioned by that occurrence, was thought to be sufficient to warrant him in opening a drinking saloon, where he expected to receive their liberal patronage. Accordingly, he lately became proprietor of the Bank Exchange, on the corner of Broadway and Howard-street. That saloon was closed yesterday, on account of his death. 

BILL POOLE was a man of uncommonly fine physical appearance. By many he was thought to be decidedly handsome. His chest was broadly developed; he had an easy and commanding carriage, and he was expert in all his movements. The features of his face were very regular and carved; his hair was dark, and he wore a large moustache. 

His residence in Christopher-street is one of a neat row of small brick houses, respectable outside and comfortable within. The parlors are neatly carpeted, and the walls hung with various paintings and large prints. 

He leaves a wife and one child. The latter is a boy, about nine years of age, named CHARLES. A portrait of this lad, taken several years ago, is among the ornaments of the front parlor. Mrs. POOLE and her child, we believe, are not left without means of support, though we have not been able to learn the exact amount of property of the deceased. She is greatly distressed by her husband's death - yesterday morning was almost raving. The event so worked upon her mind that she needs to be attended by a physician. 

BILL POOLE , during most of his illness, since the night of the affray, was able to talk to his family and the various friends who visited him; and about half and hour before his death he engaged in conversation with them. In fact, he was strong enough to set up in bed, propped and supported by pillows. Only a few minutes before expiring he remarked, with great distinctness of voice, "I think I am a goner. If I die, I die a true American; and what grieves me most is, thinking that I've been murdered by a set of Irish - by MORRISSEY in particular." 

He gave directions to have his body opened by physicians after death. He was also particular how he should appear in his coffin. He expressed a wish to be attired in a suit of black clothes, with patent leather boots, and have a white collar folded down over his coat. His funeral is appointed to take place on Sunday next, and his remains will be deposited in Greenwood Cemetery. 

It is understood that "Pargene" is inclined to turn State's evidence, and BAKER is not yet arrested. 

CORONER'S INVESTIGATION - Coroner HILTON began his investigation yesterday at 12 o'clock. The following persons were duly sworn in as jurors:
H. N. Wild.....No. 458 Broome-street
George T. Trask.....No. 134 Sixth-avenue
James S. Bell.....No. 43 Greenwich-street
John W. Moulton.....No. 516 Spring-street
George Bath.....No. 84 Rosevelt-street
James M. Byrne.....No. 193 West Forty-fourth
James S. Sturges.....No. 5 Bowery
Arch. H. Campbell.....No. 221 West Thirtieth-street
E. Welch.....No. 49 Franklin-street Wm. B. Drake.....No. 209 West Forty-third


Cyrus Shay, the first witness called in the case, being duly sworn, testified as follows: I reside at No. 51 Troy-street; I was acquainted with the deceased, and have been for the last four or five yeaers; I have known of him for even fifteen years; during the last four or five months I have been his company almost continually; he had a difficulty two or three months ago in his saloon, corner of Howard-street and Broadway, with a young man named Maurice Lannegan; this man came in drunk with the intention to fight Poole, and was whipped, but that affair had nothing to do with causing his death; Lannegan is an acquaintance of a man who is called "Pargene;" I have seen this "Pargene" described as having the name of Patrick McLaughlin; Lannegan is acquainted also with Baker; "Pargene" is a runner; Baker was a police officer, detailed on duty relative to emigrants; Maurice Lannegan is also a runner; I do not know that I have ever seen them together; Poole told me about six weeks or two months ago, that while he was in company with a man named Thomas Williams, "Pargene" met him by the Astor House, in Vesey-street, and insulted him; Poole said to him "Go along about your business - you ain't worth taking any notice of," the words which "Pargene" used were, "You are a pretty son of a b....;" Poole laughed at him, and tapping him by the side of the nose, said, "I'm too sweet for you;" Poole then passed on; a short time before this I understood that "Pargene" came into Mr. Poole's house, corner of Howard and Broadway, after 12 o'clock at night, and called for a whisky skin; the boy called Dick made it and handed it to him; he picked up the tumbler, and without drinking a drop, threw the whole in the boy's face; "Pargene" then went out; the boy asked Mr. Williams, who was present at the time, who that man was; he was told "Pargene;" Poole, a day or two after, went with the boy to get out a warrant from Judge Welch, for "Pargene's" arrest on this charge; it was a common thing for persons to come into the saloon and talk about "Pargene," insulting Poole before his barkeepers while he was away, saying that "Pargene" coudd whip him, and that though it was an American house, Irishmen had as good a right to come as any; when he heard of it Poole would say that he never wanted any one to come in that "didn't eat meat on Friday;" I don't think, however, he had any difficulty there with "Pargene," about three months ago a man named Nelson came in and talked to Mr. Poole about "Pargene," desiring to draw him out; Poole told him if he didn't stop and behave himself he would put him out of doors; I have heard "Pargene" himself speak of Poole, saying that "he would take the black muzzled son of a b...h some day or other;" from this and other remarks of a threatening character, I thought he intended to kill him; this occurred between seven and eight months ago, in Church-street, at a public house called the "Senate;" Poole was not present at the time; it was not long after the difficulty between Morrissey and Poole at the foot of Amos-street, he addressed himself to several persons present whose names I do not know; on the Saturday night of the shooting affair, (Feb. 25,) I was in Poole's saloon, I heard that he and Morrissey had had some harsh words together at Stanwix Hall, in Broadway; Oliver Leon told me this; Officer John Rue was in the house at the same time; he asked me what was the matter; I did not give him any satisfaction; I then went up alone to Stanwix Hall, in Broadway, opposite Metropolitan Hotel; I entered and went close up to Mr. Poole; it was between 9 and 10 o'clock in the evening; Poole wsa standing behind the drinking counter, near the end of it; Morrissey, at the same time was walking about the bar-room, using insulting language to Poole, and Poole was talking back to him; I don't recollect the words that passed between them; but the language of both was threatening; about thirty persons were present; the only ones I knew were Martin Fairchilds, James Irwin, John Hyler, Samuel Suydam, Capt. Lorenzo Lewis, John E. Dean, Lorenzo Deagle, Thomas Williams, Cornelius Campbell, William Janeway, and several others. 

At this stage of the proceedings the case was adjourned over to this morning, at 10 o'clock, at the Coroner's office in Chambers-street. 
New York Daily Times, Vol. IV, No. 1084, Friday, March 9, 1855, p. 1



March 31, 1855, The Illustrious Goner - The New York Evening Post says a publishing house in New York is about to issue a Life of the late William Poole, Esq., formerly known as Bill Poole, a pugilist and butcher. The Cleveland Herald jestingly announces the following further honors intended for the deceased: "The citizens of New York contemplate the erection of a colossal statue in Union square in honor of Bill Poole; and in consideration of the great pecuniary embarrassment, both of the city and citizens, it is proposed to suspend the workings upon the statue of Washington, and defer its proposed erection in the Park till a more convenient season. The design has not as yet been determined on. A distinguished artist is now employed on a painting, representing Bill Poole as being transported, Psyche-life, by the Zephyrs, to the abodes of the blessed. The painting will be placed in the City Hall, near the likeness of De Witt Clinton."
The Plattsburgh Republican, Vol. 45, No. 39, Saturday, March 31, 1855, p. 2


October 20, 1858, Long Point, Canada. John Morrissey met and defeated John C. Heenan in 11 rounds; time - 21 minutes. [Morrissey afterwards a leader of New York Democracy; elected to Congress from the 5th district in 1866, and reelected in 1868; state senator in 1875 and reelected in 1877. Died at Saratoga, New York, May 1, 1878.]
Lewis, Charlton T., ed. Harper's Book of Facts. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1906.


April 17, 1860, Farnborough, England. John C. Heenan, the "Benicia Boy," challenged Thomas Sayers, the champion of England, for the championship of that country and $1,000. Sayers was 5'8" and Heenan 6'1" in height. After 42 rounds, lasting 2 hours and 20 minutes, it was interrupted by friends of Sayers. Each man received a silver belt on May 31. [Heenan died on his way to California, October 25, 1873].
Lewis, Charlton T. ed., Harper's Book of Facts. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1906.


November 26, 1862, England. Tom King beats Jem Mace, for the champion's belt.
Lewis, Charlton T., ed. Harper's Book of Facts. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1906.


March 9, 1863, England. John Gully, (butcher, prize-fighter, and M.P. for Pontefract, 1835) - dies.
Lewis, Charlton T., ed. Harper's Book of Facts. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1906.


October 15, 1867, England. Contest for the championship between Jem Mace and O'Baldwin, a giant, prevented by the arrest of Mace.
Lewis, Charlton T., ed. Harper's Book of Facts. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1906.


June 9, 1871, The (Jem) Mace-Coburn fistic fizzle has been repeated at Kansas City, Missouri, with variations. This time Mace stepped boldly into the ring, but no Coburn was there to meet him, and the stakes were thereupon declared by the referee to belong to the English champion. It would be well if all prize fights could be conducted so peacefully, though it is a very questionable mode of earning money. The sheriff arrested the champion after the "fight" was over, but as he had neglected the little formality of procuring a warrant, he could not hold his prisoner. Coburn, it appears, showed praiseworthy discretion by remaining in New York.
Plattsburgh SentinelJune 9, 1871, p. 2


February 26, 1876, Reverend Fred Bell, known as the "reformed pugilist minister," was recently deposed from his charge of the Primitive Methodist Church of Brooklyn. Mrs. Morris, upon whose charge he is deposed, is in the last stages of consumption, and on her affidavit was presented as that of a dying woman.
The Plattsburgh Republican, February 26, 1876, p.4


January 17, 1879, The New York Sun says that a desperately contested prize-fight occurred Friday morning 20 miles from Pittsburg, between George Baker, a Canadian, and Clarke of Cleveland, lasting an hour and seventeen minutes, and Baker was knocked out of time on the 38th round.
Burlington Free Press & Times, January 20, 1879, p. 2


November 15, 1879, Publications styled "Police Gazettes," &c., are not allowed in the mails in Canada, and the United States Postmaster-General in compliance with a request from the Dominion postal authorities has ordered that all such publications addressed to Canada be considered unmailable.
The Plattsburgh Republican, Volume 70, Number 46, November 15, 1879, p. 1


1880 - (Lord Silverbridge showing his brother's room at Carlton Terrace to Isabel Boncassen and her mother). "This is Gerald's room, "said Silverbridge. "You have never seen Gerald. He is such a brick." Mrs. Boncassen was charmed with the whips and sticks and boxing-gloves in Gerald's room, and expressed an opinion that young men in the (United) States mostly carried their knickknacks about with them to the Universities.
Trollope, Anthony. The Duke's Children, Volume 3. Leipzig: Barnhard Tauchnitz, 1880, p. 198


January 2, 1882, Paddy Ryan, the champion heavy weight pugilist of America, is now in training under the charge of Johnny Roche for his coming battle with John S. Sullivan of Boston, for $5,000 and the championship of the world, at J. T. Quackenbush's club house on Vail Avenue, near Lansingburgh, where he will remain for a few weeks previous to his departure for New Orleans, near which the fight will take place.
The (Plattsburgh) Morning Telegram, January 2, 1882, p. 3.


February 7, 1882, Ryan's Defeat - Terrible Punishment - An Easy Walk Over - Sullivan Without a Scratch. Sullivan's Victory - A Regular Walk Over - Ryan in Bad Shape - His Opponent Without a Scratch.
Mississippi City - The train load of sporting men which left New Orleans at daylight did not reach this place until 10:20. Sullivan and Ryan both arrived here yesterday morning and were in the best of spirits and confident of victory. The conditions of the agreement were that the fight would be for $2,500 a side, within a 24 foot ring. Harry Hill, of New York, stakeholder, witnessed the fight. In addition to $1,000 telegraphed yesterday by Mr. Fox, proprietor of the Police Gazette of New york to bet on Ryan, the latters friends in New Orleans put up $5,000 on him. The betting all around was in favor of Sullivan - $1,000 to $800 being offered in favor of Sullivan just before the fight, and was promptly taken by enthusiastic friends of Ryan. The proclamation of Governor Lowry of Mississippi, ordering the sheriffs of seacoast counties to stop the prize fighters at all hazards and to organize an armed posse to break up the fight, created some excitement both here and in New Orleans, and caused a number of persons who feared a row would occur to remain behind. No sheriff appeared on the scene however, and the ring was pitched in front of Barnes' Hotel, in a grove of live oaks; about five thousand people were present representing all portions of the country, and of this number about one thousand were natives of this and surrounding counties. Sullivan announced as his second Billy Madden and Joe Goss and his umpire John Moran of Cincinnati. Ryan named as his seconds John Roche of New York and Tom Kelly of St. Louis, and his umpire James Shannon of New York. The dispute over, the referee was settled by choosing Alexander Brewster of New Orleans and Jack Hardy of Vicksburg jointly. Sullivan cast his cap into the ring at 11:45 by the judge's time amidst great enthusiam, and Ryan entered the ring at 11:57 amidst enthusiastic cheers from his admirers, accompanied by his seconds, Tom Kelley and Johnny Roche. Ryan won the choice of corners and took the southeast corner. Sullivan took up the opposite corner and had the sun in his face. At exactly 10 minutes of 12 o'clock the men toed the scratch and shook hands.
The First Round - began by both men sparring cautiously for an opening. Ryan led with his right and fell short, catching in return a hot one from Sullivan's left in his face. The exchange then became short and quick. Sullivan finally knocking is antagonist down with a severe right hand on the cheek. Time 80 seconds.
Second Round - Sullivan at once rushed at his man and let go his left which caught Ryan on the jaw. Ryan closed with him and they wrestled for a fall, which Ryan won, falling heavily upon his opponent. Time 25 seconds.
Third Round - The men came together with a rush, and Sullivan after making three passes knocked Ryan down with a terrible right hander in the cheek. Time 4 seconds.
Fourth Round - The men sparred for perhaps a second or two, when both feinted, and then Sullivan went for Ryan's face, putting in a stinging blow square on his nose before they closed. The struggle then commenced and was continued until Ryan was forced in and on the ropes, where he went to grass. Time 20 seconds.
Fifth Round - This was a repetition of the above, both men putting in their best licks, the attacks of both being confined to the face. Ryan finally succeeded in bringing Sullivan to his knees as a close.
Sixth Round - Sullivan came up smiling, but it was evident that Ryan was not only suffering, but was somewhat afraid of his antagonist. Sullivan lost no time but went into him; Ryan, however, slowed and downed him.
Seventh Round - This round was a short one. The men closed and the slugging continued for a few seconds, when Ryan went to grass a wreck. Sullivan came to his corner smiling. Ryan, however, had the grit to come up for another round.
Eighth Round - The men on the call of time came up promptly. Ryan was decidedly weak, but made a gallant struggle. Sullivan fought him all over the ring and into the umpire's corner and over the ropes - getting off the ropes he [Ryan] rallied, but went down on his knee and head; foul was looked for, but though Sullivan had his hand raised to strike, he restrained himself. As Ryan arose both men were retiring to the corners, when the seconds of each cried, "Go for him!" and the men responding again, came together. They closed and clinched, and after a short struggle both men went down.
Ninth and Last Round - Ryan came up groggy and Sullivan at once forced him into his corner, delivering one heavy blow, but Ryan recovered and drove Sullivan out and just beyond the middle of the ring; Sullivan got in a right hander under the left ear and Ryan went down senseless. When time was called, Ryan did not respond and the fight was declared in favor of Sullivan amid great cheering. Ryan and Sullivan were visited after they had gone to their quarters. Ryan was lying in an exhausted condition on his bed, badly disfigured about the face, his upper lip being cut through and his nose disfigured; he did not move but lay panting. Stimulants were given to restore him; he is terribly punished about the head. At the conclusion of the fight, Sullivan ran to his quarters at a lively gait and laughing, he laid down for a while, a little out of wind, but there was not a scratch on him. He chatted pleasantly with his friends. The fighting was short, sharp and decisive on Sullivan's part throughout. Ryan showing weariness after the first round.


How Boston Feels Over the Event - A Benefit for the "Boy."
When the news that Sullivan had vanquished Ryan in the fight at Mississippi City today reached this city the wildest excitement prevailed on the streets. People thronged the streets in front of the newspaper offices, and extra papers were eagerly bought. It was not until late in the evening, however, that any detailed story of the mill was received, but people waited in front of the offices until they were assured the good news was true. Now that Boston has the honor of possessing the champion prize fighter it is proposed to give him a testimonial benefit on his return from the scene of the great fight, in the Highland district, where Sullivan lives with his father and mother. Friends of the "boy" were out in full force, and the great event was appropriately celebrated, the festivities not breaking up until long after midnight. A large amount of money will be brought back to this city from New Orleans, as Bostonions had bet heavily on their favorite. It is the first time in the history of the prize ring that Boston has had the Champion of America.


Albany, New York - Intense excitement reigned here this afternoon relative to the Sullivan-Ryan fight. The telegraph and newspaper offices were thronged with anxious enquirers and hundreds congregated about State Street. Bulletins were placarded as soon as received. The final dispatch was not at first believed, but when announced as official caused the greatest disappointment. An immense amount of money changed hands.
The (Plattsburgh) Morning Telegram, February 8, 1882, p. 1


Items of Interest - (1) The Troy "sports" paid $40 each for a seat in a palace car to go to New Orleans to the prize-fight, but will have to foot it home, and it's not very good walking either. (2) The report of the fight caused a general stir here, where Ryan was a great favorite. One individual disputed the operator's word so forcibly that it nearly cost him more than his bets. (3) Ordinarily the afternoon papers publish the news belonging to the early part of the day. The Telegram today gives special report of the fight at considerable expense. Time and money will not stand in the way of doing our readers justice.
The (Plattsburgh) Morning Telegram, February 8, 1882, p. 3


February 11, 1882 - Items of Interest - People have been looking up the pedigree of Paddy Ryan and find that his paternal grandfather was named Dennis.
The (Plattsburgh) Morning Telegram, February 11, 1882, p. 3

February 13, 1882 - Items of Interest (1) It was wrong of the Trojans to Truss-t Paddy Ryan. (2) Two heavy weights are training for a fight Town Meeting day.
The (Plattsburgh) Morning Telegram, February 13, 1882, p. 3


February 14, 1882 - Items of Interest - The scene shifts and now appears Paddy Egan, who is ambitious to get a few of the blows that were not all expended on Paddy Ryan. It is really two-Baddy.
The (Plattsburgh) Morning Telegram, February 14, 1882, p. 3

February 15, 1882 - New York. The Twenty-four foot Ring: Sam Collyer, ex-light weight champion pugilist, has issued a challenge to fight Arthur Chambers or any light weight pugilist in America, for $1,000 a side. He is backed by a bowery saloon keeper. The forfeit has been lodged at the Police Gazette office.
The (Plattsburgh) Morning Telegram, February 15, 1882, p. 1


A Ryan, But Not a Paddy. Prize fight in Which a Blind Man Wins - A Beekmantown Contest.
It is universally agreed that Ned Ryan is a bully boy with a glass eye, for Ned is blind, so much so that he can't see. Blindness is not a habit of his. It is an infirmity of nature. John Mullen, on the other hand, is also a bully boy and he too is blind, but John's blindness is not an infirmity of nature, but is merely temporary, and proceeds from an altogether different cause, as the sequel will show.
Ned Ryan, to whom the honor is due of first establishing a Clinton County prize ring, was a blacksmith and had worked at his trade so long that he had accumulated a good stock of muscle. Ned was confident and lost no time in telling it, that blind as he was, he could whip the best man within a radius of twenty miles. This had been a standing challenge for six months and though it would not stir the ire of an ordinary, peace inclined citizen, it was a direct hint to Mullen, who had all along felt himself compromised by the non-acceptance of this challenge. Last Sunday night they loaded up with hard cider and entered into an honorable compact that then and there they would fight it out. Repairing to the house of a well-to-do citizen near by, they requested him to umpire the game, but were told that Sunday night was not the time for such affairs. This argument was a clincher and they parted, agreeing to meet the following morning. John went his way and Ned groped his. Monday morning prompt and early they toed the scratch. No formality of tossing for the sun was gone through with, because there wasn't any. We will not summarize by rounds; the blind man got in the two first rounds, and half an hour's recess was taken, when the fight being resumed, after a few powerful blows from Ryan the referee decided in his favor. Mullen being knocked stone blind. His face is battered, his eyes a mass and closed, and he comes out of this fight as Paddy Ryan did of the other.
The (Plattsburgh) Morning Telegram, February 15, 1882, p. 3

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February 20, 1882 - Paddy Ryan was robbed of $800 in New York last week. His truss slipped off his pocket-book. Hernia will be the death of Paddy yet.
The (Plattsburgh) Morning Telegram, February 20, 1882, p. 3


February 28, 1882 - Troy is not contented. One whipping does not make a fall and she is bound to try Egan.
The (Plattsburgh) Morning Telegram, February 28, 1882, p. 4


May 10, 1884, A boxing match in a private room was gotten up by fifteen prominent Boston men, including several members of the legislature, to be fought in six knock-out rounds of three minutes each for $150.
The Plattsburgh Republican, May 5, 1884, p. 1


May 31, 1884, The John L. Sullivan combination stopped in Toledo, Ohio for several days, and Sullivan was completely knocked out by Maumee Whiskey. In consequence the exhibition announced was indefinitely postponed.

Hanley, one of the principals in the late prize fight which was organized in Omaha City and fought in Saunders County, Nebraska, after a trial lasting a week, has been sentenced to three years' hard labor in the penitentiary. The case is to be taken to the Supreme Court.
The Plattsburgh Republican, May 31, 1884, p. 1


July 12, 1884, Alfred Mace, a son of Jem Mace, the pugilist, is holding evangelical services in London.
The Plattsburgh Republican, July 12, 1884, p. 1


January 12, 1885, A prize-fight with hard gloves between Jerry Murphy of New York and Bob Stelle, the Lightweight Champion of New England for $200 a side at New Orleans, resulted in a draw.
Burlington Free Press & Times, January 12, 1885, p. 1


February 3, 1886, Jack Fogarty was KO'd by Jack Dempsey, in 26 rounds, at New York City, for $6,500 and the middleweight championship.

February 16, 1886, Jem Smith and Alf Greenfield, both of England, fought 13 rounds near Chantilly, France. The referee decided it a draw.

March 14, 1886, Jack Dempsey whipped George LeBlanche, the "Marine," at Larchmont, Long Island. The result of the fight left Dempsey the undisputed Middleweight Champion of the United States.

March 23, 1886, Tommy Warren defeated Tommy Barnes for the Featherweight Championship of the World, at Mill Creek, 46 miles from Louisville, Kentucky, in 40 rounds.

July 5, 1886, Peter J. Nolan beat Jack Burke, the "Irish Lad," in 8 rounds at Chester Park, Cincinnati, Ohio.

July 31, 1886, Jake Kilrain defeated Jack Ashton, the "Providence Wonder," in 8 rounds at Ridgewood Park, Brooklyn, New York.

September 18, 1886, John L. Sullivan defeated Frank Hearld in 2 rounds at Allegheny City, Pennsylvania.

October 29, 1886, Johnny McAuliffe, of Brookyln, New York, defeated Billy Frazier, of Somerville, Massachusetts, at Boston, for the Lightweight Championship of the United States, knocking him out in the 21st round. In the same ring Isaac Weir, the "Belfast Spider," defeated James F. Fuhry, of Bangor, Maine, in 4 rounds, for the New England Featherweight Championship.

November 13, 1886, Paddy Ryan was KO'd by John L. Sullivan at the Mechanics' Pavilion, San Francisco, California, in 3 rounds.

November 22, 1886, Dominick McCaffrey KO'd "Sparrow" Golden out of time in 11 rounds at a New Jersey hamlet within a few miles of New York City.
The (Plattsburgh) Morning Telegram, January 1, 1887, p. 1


July 8, 1887, The race is not always to the wealthy. Even John L. Sullivan knows better than to tackle a refractory car window when he is traveling (Somerville Journal).
The Railroad Gazette, July 8, 1887, p. 459.


1888, France. John L. Sullivan and Charles Mitchell (London prize-ring rules); declared a draw after a contest of several hours.
Lewis, Charlton T., ed. Harper's Book of Facts. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1906.


April 7, 1888, There is a great sparring boom at Harvard College this season. Over 400 students are taking lessons in the manly art.
The Plattsburgh Republican, April 7, 1888, p. 4 & June 16, 1888, p. 1


April 21, 1888, Braggadocio Sullivan has recovered the use of his jaw. He now challenges the earth for $5,000 to $10,000 a side.
The Plattsburgh Republican, April 21, 1888, p. 1


May 5, 1888, Frank Murphy, the 118 pound champion of Great Britain will be here next month to make a match with any man of his weight for any part of $2,500.
The day that John L. Sullivan reached Boston he issued a challenge to fight any man in the world in a sixteen foot ring, London Prize Ring or Marquis of Queensbury rules for $10,000 a side and made a deposit of $500. He states that he prefers Kilrain or (Charlie) Mitchell. Kilrain cables acceptance.
The Plattsburgh Republican,June 5, 1888, p. 4


May 9, 1888, A boxing tournament begins in Jersey City June 11 lasting one week with $1,000 in prizes for professional competitors. Entries close 9th.
The Plattsburgh Republican, June 9, 1888, p. 1


August 11, 1888, Backers of Murphy and Havlin met August 6, and after a long and somewhat heated discussion agreed on a match to a finish for $2,000 a side, the fight to take place in the latter part of September. The match is to be under the same conditions and rules, except that the purse is to be increased by $2,000 by a club.
The Plattsburgh Republican, August 11, 1888, p. 1


October 6, 1888, George FullJames of Winnipeg fought a prize fight with an unknown at Grand Forks, Dakota, September 21st, and the latter struck FullJames a blow over the head which caused his death in a few hours.
The Plattsburgh Republican, October 6, 1888, p. 1


December 1, 1888, John L. Sullivan has offered to give Charlie Mitchell $1,5000 if the latter will stand up before him for eight rounds with gloves, the match to occur within five weeks.
The Plattsburgh Republican, December 1, 1888, p. 1


December 29, 1888, Sullivan and Kilrain will fight. Sulivan's $5,000 deposit at the Clipper office has been covered by Kilrain.
The different weights for the prize ring are: London Rules - feather weight, 112 pounds; light weight, 133; middle weight, 154; heavy weight, over 154. Police Gazette Rules - feather, 115; light, 140; middle, 158; heavy, over 158.
The Plattsburgh Republican, December 29, 1888, p. 1


January 3, 1889, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Frank Murphy of England, Featherweight Champion of the World, and Jimmy Hagan of this city fought ten rounds tonight, Murphy winning.
Burlington Daily Free Press, January 4, 1889, p. 1


January 5, 1889, The California Athletic Club, it is said, will offer a purse of $5,000 for a finish fight between Jem Carney of England, and Jack McAuliffe, the American champion.
The Plattsburgh Republican, January 5, 1889, p. 1


February 28, 1889, Articles have been signed for a fight between Jem Smith and Jake Kilrain, according to the London Prize Ring Rules, for £1,000 a side. The fight has been fixed for October, but the ground has not yet been chosen [France]. Mitchell has arranged to box Smith ten rounds with small gloves.
The Plattsburgh Republican, February 28, 1889, p. 1


July 8, 1889, Richburg, Mississippi. John L. Sullivan defeated Jack Kilrain, for the championship of America.
Lewis, Charlton T., ed. Harper's Book of Facts. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1906.


1889. Last bare-knuckle fight.
Johnston, Alexander. Ten - And Out! New York: Ives Washburn, 1927.


January 1, 1890, San Francisco, California. At a meeting of the California Club Directors, the date of the McAuliffe-Carroll fight was changed from February 20 to March 21; the purse is $3,500. McAuliffe has a bad hand and Carroll wants time to get to the weight so the principals are well satisfied. The February date will be filled with Pete McCoy and Charley Gleason who will fight to a finish for a $1,500 purse. There is considerable ill feeling between the last pair and a hot time is expected. The club is in communication with Frank P. Slavin with a view of matching him with Joe McAuliffe. In case of failure another attempt will be made to bring Kilrain here. The club has received notice that Peter Jackson will sail for America January 15 and that $15,000 is the size of the purse he wants to fight Sullivan for.
Burlington Daily Free Press, January 2, 1890, p. 1

"Kid McCoy and Peter Maher fought a battle of five rounds before the Coney Island Sporting Club, McCoy winning easily.
The Plattsburgh Republican, January 6, 1900, p. 1


January 6, 1891, New Orleans, Louisiana. Jack McAuliffe, who will be one of Jack Dempsey's seconds in his fight with Fitzsimmons on January 14, joined Dempsey at Galveston, Texas, yesterday. McAuliffe called upon the Directors of the Olympic Club, who, it is said, talked to him of a match between Jimmy Carroll, whom he recently defeated in San Francisco, and himself. It is understood that they offered to hang up a $8,000 purse. McAuliffe told the Olympic people that he would be ready to meet Carroll in six weeks and prove that his first victory over that man was not an accident. The purse would have to be $10,000, however, and if that was offered he would sign at once.
The (Plattsburgh) Morning Telegram, January 7, 1891, p. 3


January 7, 1891, New Orleans, Louisiana. Jack McAuliffe left for Galveston last evening. It is understood that he has about agreed to terms to a fight with Carroll, and the only hitch in the negotiations is about the time. The club wants the fight for Mardi Gras. That would only give McAuliffe four weeks to train and he wants six. McAuliffe promised to give the club a definite answer in a few days. The purse will be $10,000 or very near it. This was the first day on which tickets for the Dempsey-Fitzsimmons fight could be had. As over $6,400 worth were disposed of it promises to be a paying fight.
The (Plattsburgh) Morning Telegram, January 8, 1891, p. 1


September 7, 1892, New Orleans, Louisiana. John L. Sullivan met Jim Corbett of San Francisco, California, for the championship of America, at the "Olympic" arena. [The contest began at 9 PM (8th Marquess John Sholto Douglas - Queensberry rules); Sullivan was beaten in 21 rounds; a wager of $10,000 a side was put up, while the "Olympic club" offered $25,000 for the "mill," - the entire amount to go to the winner.] *Note: The Queensberry Rules came into use in 1866.
Lewis, Charlton T., ed. Harper's Book of Facts. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1906.


October 4, 1892, Covington, Nebraska. William Duffy, better known as "Billy the Kid," was knocked out by Jack Keefe and died within an hour. Keefe and all the seconds are under arrest.
The (Plattsburgh) Morning Telegram, October 5, 1892, p. 3


October 12, 1892, New Orleans, Louisiana. Bob Fitzsimmons affixed his signature to a contract to fight Jim Hall at catch weights before the Olympic Club, of this city, about February 1, for a purse of $15,000.
The (Plattsburgh) Morning Telegram, October 13, 1892, p. 3


February 5, 1893, St. Louis, Missouri, Harry Sharpe KO-77 (5 hours, 10 minutes), over Frank Crosby. Queenbury Rules.
Plattsburgh Daily Press, March 13, 1933, p. 4.


January 25, 1894, Jacksonville, Florida. James J. Corbett met Charles Mitchell (of England) under the auspices of the Duval Athletic club. [Corbett defeated Mitchell in 3 rounds. The "club" paid $20,000 to the winner, and $5,000 to cover the expenses of both for training.]
Lewis, Charlton T. ed., Harper's Book of Facts. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1906.


February 19, 1895, Jersey City, New Jersey. The ten round boxing match between Cal McCarthy and Joseph Craig, both of Jersey City, at 129 lbs., took place at the Oakland rink and was declared a draw.
The Plattsburgh Press, February 20, 1895, p. 1


February 21, 1895, Buffalo, New York. The fistic tourney at Turn hall for the benefit of Andy Bow[a]n's widow netted $238.50.
The Plattsburgh Press, February 22, 1895, p. 1


February 28, 1895, John Gatton and Amos Goodwin engaged in a boxing match near Owensboro, Kentucky. Goodwin got mad and shot Gatton dead. He was not caught.
The Plattsburgh Press, February 28, 1895, p. 1


March 17, 1897, Carson City, Nevada, Corbett vs Fitzsimmons [Fitz wins by KO]
The Barre Daily Times, March 16, 1897, p. 1. Also see The Plattsburgh Republican, January 2, 1904, p. 3


April 4, 1899, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. "Will Not Allow Fighting" - As a result of the protest of the ministerial associations the city council decided this afternoon to discontinue the practice of renting the Pavilion, which is city property, for boxing shows. This rule does not effect the Empire Athletic Club's show next Saturday night when Walcott and Judge furnish the main bout. It was shown that the club had paid for the Pavilion and the city could not therefore break the contract.
The Burlington Free Press & Times, April 5, 1899, p. 7.


September 5, 1899, New York. "Kid" McCoy completely rehabilitated himself last night in the opinions of his friends by easily knocking out Geoffrey Thorne of England at the Broadway Athletic Club in the third round of what was to have been a twenty round bout. Thorne had fancied that because "Jack" McCormick of Philadelphia had the luck to knock McCoy out by a chance blow a short while ago, he might repeat the performance. It did not take him long to come to a realizing sense of his mistake. "Johnny" White referred the bout. The men had weighed in at 3PM at 158 lbs, and each looked in fine condition. Thorne started as the aggressor in the first round, doing most of the leading. McCoy kept his hands little in motion, content to size up his man and meet his rushes at the start by clinching. In the second round McCoy began to warm up a little, and his generalship and leg work were in strong contrast to Thorne's awkward and nervous, though rapid, sparring. McCoy finally got in a smash on Thorne's mouth which set it bleeding, and later the Englishman went down twice, apparently to avoid punishment. Thorne could not land with any accuracy. In the third McCoy, following a bit of sparring, caught his man a vicious left hook in the jaw. Thorne started to fall forward, and as he did so ran into a left swing full on the side of the jaw. He fell on his face and was counted out, though making frantic efforts to rise.
The New York Times, September 6, 1899, p. 5


September 8, 1899, New York. Owen Ziegler, the local welterweight, decisively whipped "Charley" Burns of Cincinnati, heralded as one of the best men in the West, at the Broadway Athletic Club last night. Ziegler weighed about 140 lbs., and Burns 10 lbs. more, but the latter, though strong, could not touch his opponent in the matter of science and cleverness. Ziegler, after breaking his right hand in the fourth round, beat his opponent in the 12th. They were to have gone 25 rounds. In the 7th round Burns accidentally hit his man low and Ziegler went down. When he rose Burns offered his hand in apology. The Easterner, being unused to the extremes of etiquette in the prize ring, saw nothing but a chance to do damage, and instead of shaking hands caught Burns a smash in the face. The crowd howled angrily, and Burns went at Ziegler to square accounts, but could not land. In the 11th round Ziegler sent his man to the floor and Burns took the limit to get up. He was groggy when the bell sounded. In the 12th Ziegler, with a left swing, sent Burns flat on his back, and Johnny White, the referee, stopped the bout and gave the decision to Ziegler.
The New York Times, September 9, 1899, p. 4


September 9, 1899, New York. The final bouts in the boxing tournament of the Lexington Athletic Club took place last night at the Lenox Athletic Club.

[110 lb Class] 1st bout: A. Dunsheath, Passaic Athletic Club beat J. Stone, Avonia Athletic Club. 2nd bout: J. McDonald, Union Settlement Athletic Club beat C. Hoffman, Alliance Athletic Club. 3rd bout: A. Dunsheath, Passaic AC beat B.J. Diamond, Union Settlement AC. Final bout: A. Dunsheath beat B. J. McDonald. 2nd Prize: J. Stone, Avonia AC.

[120 lb Class] 1st bout: J. McGinn, St. Bartholomew Athletic Club beat J. Clapp, Empire Athletic Club. 2nd bout: J. Leddy, Pastime Athletic Club beat B. Cohen, Alliance Athletic Club. 3rd bout: J. Callahan, Union Settlement AC beat H. Manice, Orient Athletic Club. 4th bout: J. Leddy, Pastime AC beat J. Callahan, Union Settlement. Final bout: J. Laurel, Puritan Athletic Club beat J. Leddy, Pastime AC.

[130 lb Class] J. Shaefer, St. George's Athletic Club beat M. J. McGarry, Pastime AC. Final bout: J. Hopkins, Union Settlement AC beat J. Shaefer, St. George's. 2nd Prize: J. Shaefer.

[140 lb Class] Final: J. F. Mumford, New West Side Athletic Club KO-1, J. N. Killoran, National Athletic Club. 2nd Prize: J. N. Killoran, National AC KO'd T. Doyle, Avonia AC.

[150 lb Class] 1st bout: W. Rodenback, New West Side Athletic Club beat J. F. Mumford, also of the New West Side AC. Final bout: W. Rodenback, New West Side AC beat J. Burrows of Brooklyn. 2nd Prize: J. F. Mumford, New West Side KO-1, F. Hyde, Pastime Athletic Club.
The New York Times, September 10, 1899, p. 11


January 6, 1900, Robert Fitzsimmons is matched with Jack McCormick for a six round sparring contest. The purse is to be 75% of the gross receipts, winner take all. The date is January 20th, and the place the industrial hall of Philadelphia.
The Plattsburgh Republican, January 6, 1900, p. 1


March 5, 1900, Robert Fitzsimmons and Tom Sharkey signed an agreement to fight during the first week in August, before the club offering the largest purse, the winner to take the whole prize.
The Plattsburgh Republican, March 10, 1900, p. 1


March 24, 1900, Champion James Jeffries will fight three men in Chicago on the night of April 5th. The bouts will be six rounds each, to take place at Tattersall's, the manager of which is negotiating with a number of heavy weights for the contest.
The Plattsburgh Republican, March 24, 1900, p. 1


March 31, 1900, Tom Sharkey and Kid McCoy have signed an agreement to fight a twenty-five round contest on June 25th, before the Seaside Sporting Club of Coney Island.
The Plattsburgh Republican, March 31, 1900, p. 1


April 7, 1900, "Bob" Fitzsimmons and "Gus" Ruhlin are matched for a fight of twenty-five rounds June 2nd, at Tuckahoe, before the Westchester Athletic Club.
The Plattsburgh Republican, April 7, 1900, p. 1


April 21, 1900, President Bernard York of the New York Police says that there must be no more fighting matches in that city after May 1st.
The Plattsburgh Republican, April 21, 1900, p. 1


May 8, 1900, in Chicago, Illinois, Tom Sharkey KO-2, Joe Choynski of California.
The Plattsburgh Republican, May 12, 1900, p. 1


May 11, 1900, James Jeffries, champion heavyweight pugilist, KO-23, James Corbett, before the Seaside Athletic Club at Coney Island. About 8,000 persons saw the fight. The betting was heavily in favor of Jeffries at first, but during the fight Corbett made so good a showing that it was even at one time. Jeffries weighed 210 lbs., and Corbett 185 lbs. The gate receipts were $34,000, of which Jeffries got $15,300, and Corbett got $5,100.
The Plattsburgh Republican, May 19, 1900, p. 1


May 26, 1900, James J. Jeffries, Champion, and Thomas Sharkey have agreed to fight for the Championship of the World on or before August 25th, the bout to be limited to twenty-five rounds.
The Plattsburgh Republican, May 26, 1900, p. 1


March 31, 1903, San Francisco, California. Terry McGovern, of Brooklyn, age 24, and weighing 125 lbs, and William J. Rothwell ("Young Corbett') of Denver, age 26, and weighing 127 lbs, fought for the featherweight championship of the world. Young Corbett winning in the 11th round after a fierce fight on both sides.
The Plattsburgh Republican, April 4, 1903, p. 1, Also see January 2, 1904, p. 4


April 11, 1903, Jim Jeffries, the champion pugilist, is reported to be drinking heavily with Bob Fitzsimmons, ex-champion, at Scranton, Pennsylvania and vicinity.
Plattsburgh Republican, April 11, 1903, p. 1.


August 1, 1903, The Court of Appeals of Ontario (Canada) is considering the question whether pugilistic encounters shall not be barred in that Province.
The Plattsburgh Republican, August 1, 1903, p. 1


August 14, 1903, San Francisco, California
The fight between James J. Jeffries and James J. Corbett for the heavyweight championship was won by Jeffries in ten rounds...Corbett being KO'd in ten. Jeffries share of the gate money was $32,728, and Corbett's $10,910. The gross receipts were $62,540. There was comparatively little money bet, and the odds on Jeffries were more than 2 to 1.
The Plattsburgh Republican, August 22, 1903, p. 1 and January 2, 1904, p. 4


November 24, 1903, San Francisco, California
(Lanky Bob) Fitzsimmons defeated (George) Gardner for the light-heavyweight championship of the world.
The Plattsburgh Republican, January 2, 1904, p. 4


December 29, 1903, San Francisco, California
Young Corbett (William Rothwell) defeated Eddie Hanlon in a prize fight in 10 rounds.
The Plattsburgh Republican, January 2, 1904, p. 1


January 2, 1904, The Fitzsimmons-Corbett match has aroused great interest throughout the country. It is the outcome of much talking on the part of both fighters. The coming meeting will be the second time the veterans have faced each other in the fistic arena. Fitzsimmons was the first man to score a KO against Corbett. This happened when he whipped him for the championship at Carson City, Nevada (March 1897). It should be a great fight as there is no love lost between "Gentleman Jim" and "Lanky Bob." Corbett has not forgotten Carson City, and Fitz says that Jim will prove "easy meat."

Jack O'Brien's return to America is stirring up a lot of interest in fighting circles, and Ryan will have to give some attention to his challenge also if he expects to remain in the ring. If Tommy should decide that he has enjoyed all the fighting he wants this time on earth and retires it is quite likely that the long deferred match between Fitzsimmons and O'Brien will come to a head.
The Plattsburgh Republican, January 2, 1904, p. 3


January 27, 1904, Jack O'Brien and Tommy Ryan fought six rounds before the National Athletic Club of Philadelphia, and as neither was knocked out it was declared a draw.
The Plattsburgh Republican, February 6, 1904, p. 1


February 6, 1904, Portland, Maine, has put a ban on boxing, the Committee on Public Buildings having decided to lease no building for sparring exhibitions.
The Plattsburgh Republican, February 6, 1904, p. 1


April 9, 1904, Jeffries and Munroe will fight in San Francisco May 30.
The Plattsburgh Republican, April 9, 1904, p. 1


June 5, 1907, Marvin Hart gives out an interview saying, "I am utterly ignored by Tommy Burns." That sounds like a prize fighter trying to talk without the assistance of a press agent.


Bob Fitzsimmons recently declared himself to the effect that he has no intentions of retiring from the ring. In an interview Lanky Bob said: "I will meet any man in the world for the middleweight championship at 158 lbs. ringside, or I will meet Jack O'Brien at catchweight and agree to stop him inside of ten rounds or forfeit all claim to any purse. I have never said that I retired from the ring, and in fact my words mean a challenge to the world. I prefer a fight with O'Brien above all things, however. If the Philadelphian does not accept then there is the inference that Jack does not think favorably of it. I had it on him when I boxed him in Philadelphia until he yelped for help from the police, and the bluecoats came to his assistance in time to save him from a knockout. I know nothing about Squires except what I have read in the newspapers. I judge him to be a first rate man from these accounts, but until he has fought somebody we will have no line on him."
The (Plattsburgh) Evening News, June 5, 1907, p. 3


July 17, 1907 - Fitz Down and Out - Veteran Pugilist Makes Poor Showing When Opposed By Johnson
Philadelphia - Jack Johnson stopped Bob Fitzsimmons in the second round of a six round boxing bout before the Washington Sporting club last night. Fitzsimmons did not show a trace of his former prowess, and it is probable that Johnson could have stopped him in the opening round if he had cared to do so. The blow that put Fitzsimmons out was a light right to the jaw. The old man fell to the floor, and as he made no attempt to rise the referee stopped the bout. The hissing that usually follows knockouts of this character was absent, the spectators evidently taking compassion on the former pugilistic star. Referee Keenan refused to act in the ring because he had heard that Fitzsimmons had a badly sprained arm. The manager of the club then entered the ring and watched the uneven match. In the opening round Johnson tapped Fitzsimmons when and where he chose, but the latter was unable to even land his famous counters.
The Bennington Evening Banner, No. 1109, Thursday, July 18, 1907, p. 2


August 21, 1912, "Referee Should Be Outside the Ring."
A controversy as to whether the referee's position should be in or outside the ring is just now agitating English boxing circles. The question is only part of a movement aimed at some widespread reforms. An effort is being made to promulgate an international scale of weights that will be recognized in all countries where boxing is held. The leading authorities on boxing have given their views for publication. All are in unison regarding the uniform weight scale, but differ on the referee problem. Some declare that the referee is a nuisance in the ring, obstructing the view of the spectators and getting in the way of the boxers. Those taking the opposite side point out that when the referee is outside the ropes he is unable to see a foul blow struck if the recipient happens to have his back turned on him. Eugene Corri, who is recognized as England's leading referee, favors the American system of refereeing. Gilbert Elliott, chairman of the National Sporting club of London, takes the opposite point of view. Victor Breyer, the French promoter, when asked to give his opinion said he favored the plan of having three judges outsdie the ropes to give the decision and a ringmaster inside to see that men box fairly.
Plattsburgh Daily Press, August 21, 1912, p. 4


January 6, 1914, Los Angeles, California. The cases of Jess Willard, the heavyweight pugilist, and ten others who are accused of alleged violation of the state law prohibiting prize-fighting are on the Superior Court docket for trial tomorrow. All of the accused were connected with the Jess Willard-John "Bull" Young bout at Vernon last August in which Young was fatally injured.
Plattsburgh Daily Press, January 7, 1914, p. 2


January 13, 1914, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Friends of Jack Blackburn, the former well known pugilist, are arranging to give him a new start in life when he is released from the Eastern Penitentiary here tomorrow, after having served five years for shooting another negro in a quarrel over a woman. Though he is said to be in good condition it is not at all likely that the negro will ever be seen in the ring again. He is past his thirtieth year and was virtually all in as a fighter when he got into trouble. When in his prime, Blackburn stood well up among the welterweight fighters. He hailed originally from Indianapolis and began his ring career in 1902. He won bouts with such fighters as "Spike" Sullivan, Jimmy Gardner, and Mike Donovan, and fought several draws with Sam Langford.
Plattsburgh Daily Press, January 14, 1914, p. 1


January 25, 1914, Melbourne, Australia. Tom McCormick, the Australian pugilist, was yesterday given the verdict on a foul in the sixth round of a match with Waldemar Holberg, the Danish pugilist, for the Welterweight Championship of Australasia. Holberg was out classed all through the contest.
Plattsburgh Daily Press, January 26, 1914, p. 1


January 4, 1916
Jack Clune, boxing promoter, is in communication with George M. Lawrence of New York relative to putting on an exhibition 10-round bout in Brattleboro (Vermont) by Sam McVea, the colored marvel, and his boxing partner, Bob Devere. Mr. Clune realizes that this is something of an undertaking, but he wants to give the fans a top-liner that they will always remember and he purposes to make a canvass to see what the prospects are for supporting such an exceptional attraction.
McVea has knocked out almost every white fighter he has met and has defeated the four greatest colored men in his class, namely, Sam Langford, Joe Jeanette, Battling Jim Johnson and Harry (The Black Panther) Wills. For the past six years he has been the greatest figher attraction in the business. He is ready to meet Jess Willard for a $10,000 side bet, winner to take all the purse, and besides that Mr. Lawrence agrees to present Willard $1,000 for every round Willard lasts with McVea over five rounds and to put up an additional $5,000 that Willard will not last 10 rounds with McVea.

Devere is an Irishman, 20 years old, six feet tall and weighs 198 pounds. He has had 21 fights, out of which he has knocked out 17 men and received the referee's decision twice. He has knocked out Sailor Grande, Marty Cutler, trainer of Jack Johnson, also Jack Lester, Jim McCormack, Dick Lawless and others. The Irish giant is ready to meet any heavyweight boxer in the world.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, January 4, 1916, p. 4



January 10, 1916
An opponent has been selected for Jess Willard in the first battle in which he will engage since he toppled over the black champion (Jack Johnson) in Havana and captured the heavyweight crown. The man chosen by the champion as a tryout victim is Fred Fulton, a giant from Rochester, Minnesota, who is physically a match for the big cowboy, but whose ring craft and experience are decidedly on the short end of the proposition. Without a doubt Willard decided that he needed a few bouts under his belt before tackling hard game like (Frank) Moran, Coffey, Smith or Harry Wills, and Fulton will be the first of a few chaps who are not regarded as dangerous and who will meet the champion in what really are training bouts.
The amazing thing about the Fulton-Willard match is that the New Orleans promoters have guaranteed Willard $32,500 for his share. If the people of Louisiana and adjacent states are willing to pay that amount to see Willard in a bout with practically a novice, that is for them to explain. No doubt the promoters are willing to take the chance, because the Mardi Gras will be staged at the same time in the Crescent City and possibly they will get their money back. But as for a contest between Willard and Fulton it looks on paper decidedly one sided.

However, if one listens to the arguments of Fulton's doting manager Willard will not be the champion very shortly after he has entered the ring with the Minnesotan. According to the fond manager, Fulton and Willard met in a three round exhibition bout at Rochester, Minnesota, May 14, 1915, and Fulton not only won on points, but also scored a knockdown in the second round. As a matter of fact, Fulton's manager is a bit astonished that Willard, after the rough manner in which he was handled by Fulton, should consent to another match with the mammoth Minnesotan.

In setting forth his belief that Fulton is sure to beat Willard, Fulton's manager gives sixteen reasons for thinking his man will vanquish the champion, as follows:


1. He is as fast on his feet as a lightweight.

2. He can outbox any heavyweight.

3. He has a straight left that no heavyweight of the present time can block.

4. If necessary he can dance around any heavyweight in the business for hours.

5. He has a knockout punch in either hand.

6. He has twenty-nine clean knockouts to his credit.

7. He never had a black eye or bloody nose.

8. He is of Scotch-Irish parentage.

9. His height is six feet four and one-half inches.

10. His reach is eight-four and one-half inches.

11. His weight is 220 pounds.

12. He is twenty-three years old.

13. He is an all around athlete.

14. He never chewed, smoked or drank.

15. He is positively sure no man in the world can beat him.

16. On the 14th of May, 1915, he beat with ease Jess Willard, present champion of the world, and knocked him down in the second round, something Jack Johnson couldn't do in twenty-six rounds.
It is not unlikely that Fulton's manager will have sixteen excuses after the battle and will naively overlook the fact that his man was outclassed.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, January 10, 1916, p. 4



In these days of no decision bouts and footwork in the ring it is refreshing to know that out of the west is coming a real old fashioned, honest to goodness, hard hitting middleweight fighter.
His name is Leo Bens (the Butte Wildcat). He is a copper miner, and he hails from the greatest mining district on earth...Butte, Montana.

Bens has had less than three years of actual ring experience and in that time has won decisively from every man they could put against him with a single exception. The exception is Sailor Petroskey. Petroskey won a hairline decision from Bens after the latter had insisted, against the advice of his physician, on getting out of a sickbed to meet the man who was at that time champion middleweight of the Pacific coast. Later Bens' miner friends raised a purse of $5,000 to bet that Bens could beat Petroskey in a return match. The sailor, however, had had a hard enough time beating Bens when sick, and he refused to meet the miner fighter when well.

Bens first demonstrated his strength when he was working in a shaft of one of the Butte mines. This mine was just starting, and the shaft was down fifty feet when an accident occurred to the ladder, and the miners found thermselves trapped unless some one could climb the hemp rope that swung from a timber at the top. Bens essayed the task and climbed hand over hand to the surface, where he soon procured help for his companions.

A week later Bens underwent a severe test for his courage. He was then working for the Anaconda company in one of the "fire mines" of the Butte district, in which the heat is intense. In some way Bens' partner became overheated and fainted in a tunnel at a spot where the heat was so great it was dangerous even to falter. Three miners went to the assistance of the unfortunate man and were forced to retreat by the awful heat. Nothing daunted, Bens darted into the tunnel and at the risk of his own life half dragged and half carried the miner to a place of safety. Later Bens collapsed and was in the hospital a week, but he had saved his partner's life.

When Jack Dillon boxed Bob Moha in Butte one of his sparring partners was Bens, and Dillon was so impressed with the fighting Butte miner that he wanted to sign a contract as manager and tour the country with Leo. The latter could not leave Montana at that time, however, and so Dillon left without Bens, but they parted good friends. Dillon says Bens has the making of a champion.
Bens will visit the east after the first of the new year. Henry Irslinger, the wrestler, who will handle Bens' affairs, states that the westerner can defeat all the eastern middleweights in jigtime.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, January 10, 1916, p. 4



January 12, 1916
(New York) Jess Willard, world's heavyweight champion, and Frank Moran have been matched to meet here March 3 for a purse of $45,000.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, January 12, 1916, p. 1


February 5, 1916
"Young Bob Fitzsimmons has concluded to go after the middleweight championship. His father will train him. Fitz junior is said to be one of the best middleweights in the country and with proper handling and encouragement will reach the top."
The above statement, which emanated from his doting parent, would indicate that old Fitz has a really high opinion of his son as to boxing skill. However, as Young Bob has appeared in bouts on the stage with his father, it has not been difficult to get a line on the youngster. In the bouts with his father he proved to be merely an awkward novice. If the youngster ever sets out to win the title he will get many a beating, say experts. Al McCoy has nothing to fear from Young Fitz.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, February 5, 1916, p. 4



March 4, 1916
The boxing commission of New York is going to lower the color line long enough to give Sam McVey a chance to earn $50 by knocking Jess Willard down in training.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, March 4, 1916, p. 4


March 7, 1916
When Mike Gibbons eliminated the "dancing master," Jake Ahearn, at St. Paul recently by the decisive method of a knockout he clarified the middleweight situation considerably. He also made it very plain what a lead pipe cinch Packey McFarland would have annexing the welterweight title.
With Ahearn out, the middleweight fight title now rests among three persons...Al McCoy, Mike Gibbons and Les Darcy, who challenged the winner of the Gibbons-Ahearn bout.

McCoy is considered something of a joke, although very few of his foes have ever been able to make him appear laughable.

Les Darcy, the new comet of the firmament, is one to whom Gibbons and McCoy owe thanks for having cleared from the title path such formidable obstacles as Jimmy Clabby, Eddie McGoorty and Jeff Smith.

Undoubtedly Darcy and Gibbons are the only pair seriously considered, despite McCoy's technical claim to the title. If the Australian and the Twin City star should battle a long fight the winner would undoubtedly be hailed as the world's champion at the weight.

McFarland held Gibbons even in their New York meeting. Many gave him the margin. Gibbons knocked out Ahearn and Ahearn held even, or better, the famous Jack Dillon, considered by all the best light heavyweight in the game and by many given a good chance to defeat Willard despite the disparity in their weight and size.
This brings McFarland close up to the top of the lot. If he started in to defend the welterweight title there are few that would have the ghost of a chance with him.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, March 7, 1916, p. 4



November 30, 1916, New Orleans, Louisiana. Ad Wolgast won from Frankie Russell in 20 rounds tonight.

Eauclair, Wisconsin. Eddie Moha of Milwaukee and Mike O'Dowd of St. Paul fought 10 rounds here this afternoon to a draw.
Plattsburgh Daily Republican, December 1, 1916, p. 1


December 2, 1916, New York. "Les Darcy Fights Best When He's Mad"
George Chip the middleweight "whang" dispenser tried to slip over a little "joker" on the Australian fight folks just before he fought and was knocked out by Les Darcy. He was offered, by Australian tennis champion Harry Parker, $2,000 for his rights in the moving pictures of the fight if he won, $100 if he lost [Importing fight pictures was barred by United States laws]. A few months back Buck Crouse fought Darcy and was beat in the 3rd round (Red Watson was Crouse's second). 
Plattsburgh Daily Republican, December 4, 1916, p. 5, Also see "Darcy Will Reach American Next Week," December 23, 1916, p. 10.


December 7, 1916, New York. Jess Willard recently admitted that he now tips the scales at 270 lbs. This probably means that the Big Boy is closer to the 300 lb mark than he is to his "admitted" weight. And yet, Jess would have us believe that he need take off but 20 lbs to be in trim to defend his title. When he met Jack Johnson at Havana, Willard was supposed to weight around 240 lbs, and even at that weight he made a rather cumbersome title holder. Willard is so big that it would be hard to find a man to make a bluff at fighting, who might be favorably compared with him for size. Fred Fulton is the only title aspirant at present who comes close to being as gigantic as Willard, and Fulton has not yet proven to the satisfaction of the sporting public as a whole that he has championship calibre. Fulton and (Frank) Moran are to meet in the ring at Minneapolis late in December, and in Moran, the "Rochester Plasterer" will find one of the toughest nuts he ever dreamed of. If Fulton can beat Moran, promoters will be justified in matching him with Willard, but he must win decisively.
Plattsburgh Daily Republican, December 11, 1916, p. 8.


December 8, 1916, New York. Madison Square Garden, famous as the scene of many important pubic meetings and atheltic exhibitions, was sold under the auctioneer's hammer today for $2 million. The structure was bought by the New York Life Insurance Company whose representative, Edward W. Devlin, was the only bidder.
Plattsburgh Daily Republican, December 9, 1916, p. 1


December 21, 1916, New York. Marty Cross administered a severe lacing to Albert Badond of France and won a popular decision in their 10 round bout here tonight at the Empire Athetic Club.
Plattsburgh Daily Republican, December 22, 1916, p. 1


October 19, 1920, Commonwealth Sporting Club. Tillie (Kid) Herman vs Marty Cross, 15 rounds.

Bad News Ebber vs Abe Attell Goldstein, 15 rounds.
Plattsburgh Daily Press, October 19, 1920, p. 8


October 21, 1920, Paris, France, "Carpentier is Light Heavyweight Champion." The French Boxing Federation has decided to ask the International Boxing Union to sanction the result of the Carpentier-Levinski fight by granting Georges Carpentier the title of Light Heavyweight Champion of the World. The Union has heretofore considered this title vacant.
Plattsburgh Daily Press, October 22, 1920, p. 8.


October 22, 1920, Madison Square Garden Sporting Club, Louis Bogash vs Marty Cross

Jack Perry vs Paul Doyle

George Ward vs K.O. Loughlin

Johnny Summers vs Steve Latzo, all 15 rounds (PDP Oct. 21 says 10 rds)
Plattsburgh Daily Press, October 19 and 21, 1920, p. 8


October 23, 1920, the Commonwealth Sporting Club. The colored Lightweight Championship will be at stake when Leo Johnson, the title holder, battles Wee Wee Barton in one of the two star 15-round bouts at the Commonwealth Sporting Club tonight. In the other, Phil Delmont will oppose "Happy" Smith. Next Tuesday (Oct. 26) at this club Abe Goldstein will meet Earl Puryear, conquerer of Champion Pete Herman.
Plattsburgh Daily Press, October 23, 1920, p. 8


December 1, 1923, Joseph "Jimmy" Zeintz, Flyweight Boxer of Denmark, is to make a trip to America in 1924 to box the best men in that class. The Danish boy, according to Spike Webb, boxing coach at the US Naval Academy, is one of the best boxers in Europe.
Plattsburgh Daily Republican, December 1, 1923, p. 2


December 13, 1923, Service Club, Plattsburg, New York Barracks, K. O. Lang (Plattsburg Barracks) vs Fighting Bob Terry, Boston, Massachusetts, 8 Rounds/147 lbs

Arms (Plattsburg Barracks) vs Chateau Thierry (Plattsburgh), 6 Rounds/135 lbs

Gannon (Plattsburg Barracks) vs Chagnon (Plattsburgh), 6 Rounds/130 lbs

Keenan (Plattsburg Barracks) vs Dukette (Plattsburg), 4 Rounds/135 lbs

Johnson (Company I) vs Stanks (Company C), 4 Rounds/160 lbs
Ringside ($1.50), General Admission (75 cents)
Plattsburgh Daily Republican, December 12, 1923, p. 7 and December 13, 1923, p. 6


December 17, 1923, Los Angeles, California. Fighting King David Scored A Knockout.

Fighting King David, bearded newsboy, whose religion bans haircuts and shaves, surprised patrons of a boxing club here, by knocking out his opponent in the second round of what was expected to be a playful "curtain raiser." The bearded boxer, who is a newsboy on weekdays, and a preacher on Sunday, declared his whiskers are an aid in the ring, since they cushion blows. The preacher-newsboy-pugilist weighs 118 lbs, and is more than 6 feet tall.
Plattsburgh Daily Republican, December 18, 1923, p. 2


December 27, 1923. The fight game prospers not only in the good old USA, but in some of our possessions not so far away. Since Congress passed legislation permitting boxing in the Canal Zone, two stadiums have been erected, one on the East and one on the West Coast, each with a seating capacity of 4,500. Terry Richards, matchmaker, is now in New York rounding up talent and expects to return shortly with a score of prominent maulers who will show their wares to the Panama hat contingent.
Plattsburgh Daily Republican, December 27, 1923, p. 3


December 28, 1923. The "Rabbit Punch," a blow in the back of the neck, is said to have been first used by Jess Willard in his fight with Jack Johnson.
Plattsburgh Daily Republican, December 28, 1923, p. 3


December 29, 1923. The prospective opponents of Jack Dempsey are Harry Wills, Tom Gibbons, Luis Firpo and Jack Renault.

Robert Roth of Switzerland, who won the heavyweight wrestling championship at the last Olympic Games, has become a professional boxer.
Plattsburgh Daily Republican, December 29, 1923, p. 3


January 1, 1924, Boxing Champions of 1923
World Heavyweight, Jack Dempsey, Los Angeles; World Light-Heavyweight, Mike McTigue, New York; American Light-Heavyweight, Gene Tunney, New York; World Middleweight, Harry Greb, Pittsburgh; World Welterweight, Mickey Walker, Elizabeth, New Jersey; World Lightweight, Benny Leonard, New York; World Bantamweight, Joe Lynch, New York; World Flyweight, Pancho Villa, Phillipines; American Flyweight, Frankie Genaro, New York.
Plattsburgh Daily Press, January 1, 1924, p. 2


January 4, 1924, Albany, New York. The boxing game is in danger. Because it is said that the sport in New York City is controlled by a Trust, represented by Tex Rickard, it is hinted the game may be killed at this session of the Legislature...Senator Michael Reihurn, Democrat of New York, roundly scored the administration of the boxing law yesterday after introducing a bill to limit the price of admission to $5 for ordinary bouts, and $7 for championship contests..."I introduced this bill," he said, "to stop profiteering in the sport, and this is not all that should be done to the boxing game. Phoney decisions are becoming a disgrace."
Plattsburgh Daily Republican, January 5, 1924, p. 4


January 7, 1924. Young Stribling, nineteen year old light-heavyweight of Macon, Georgia, has engaged in more than 80 bouts, losing only three decisions. Twice he reversed these decisions in return bouts.
Plattsburgh Daily Republican, January 7, 1924, p. 3


January 9, 1924, New York. Jimmy Kelly won from KO (over) Phil Kaplan in the second round of what was to have been a 12 round contest, in the Lenox Sporting Club.

A testimonial to the late Billy Miske, heavyweight pugilist of St. Paul, will be presented at St. Paul, Minnesota on January 11, in the shape of a fistic entertainment sponsored by sports writers of Minneapolis and St. Paul.
Plattsburgh Daily Republican, January 10, 1924, p. 3


January 12, 1924. Kid McCoy was one of the trickiest of the larger fighting men...those who remember his "comeback" the night he met big Jim Stewart in Philadelphia will never forget how the bout began. [McCoy entered the ring first and picked his corner, all the while talking to imaginary friends in the crowd. When Stewart went to greet McCoy, McCoy said, "Oh, hello...boy!" McCoy then stepped on Stewart's "corns." Next, he reached up and jerked Stewart's head down and said, "Does this constitute one-hand holding?" By this time Stewart's nerves were so badly shattered that McCoy had no difficulty in whipping him in a limited bout.]
Plattsburgh Daily Republican, January 12, 1924, p.3


January 13, 1924, New York. Frank Doherty, known in the boxing ring as "Frankie Jerome," died tonight in the Bellevue Hospital from a compound fracture of the skull, believed to have been suffered in his last bout Friday night (Jan. 11) with Bud Taylor of Terre Haute, Indiana, in which Jerome received a terrific beating. The dead boxer was one of the leading bantamweights in the country, and was a favorite among New York fans who knew him as the "Bronx Spider." He had fought a large number of bouts both here and throughout the country, and was regarded as a dangerous contender for the title held by Joe Lynch. His bout with Taylor, which was held in Madison Square Garden, was arranged to help him in his advance toward a meeting with the title holder. The Terre Haute boxer turned out to be one of the most aggressive and hard hitting men that had exhibited in the boxing ring (in) a long time, and serverely pounded his opponent from the opening until he was out in the 12th and final round.

Albany, New York. The death of a fighter in the boxing ring in 1917, resulted in the suspension throughout New York State for three years of officially recognized bouts. During the winter of 1917, Toddy Hicks, of Albany, struck Young McDonald, also of Albany, a right over the heart. McDonald dropped, was carried from the ring, and was found to be dead. The bout was one of the preliminaries on a full card, and the promoters continued the program despite McDonald's death. Governor Charles E. Whitman, disgusted by the procedure, called for a repeal of the Malone Boxing Law. Boxing then, as far as official recognition was concerned, ceased until 1920, when the Legislature passed the Walker Boxing Law, under which bouts now are conducted.
Platttsburgh Daily Press, January 14, 1924, p. 1


January 15, 1926 - The Fighting Editor - by Robert M. Hughes
This address given before the Virginia Press Association highlighted how editors in England when physically challenged at the office for their written opinions had "...sent for the proprietor of a neighboring tavern who was a retired pugilist, and who undertook the part. So the fighting editor of that type was a sort of literary bouncer."
Hughes, Robert M. "The Fighting Editor." William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine, Vol. VII, No. 1, January, 1927, p. 2


May 31, 1928, New York. Tommy Loughran, Light-Heavyweight Champion, and Pete Latzo, Scranton Miner, went back to their training grind today to whittle down to edge again for their 15-round title match at Ebbets Field, tomorrow night. Rain caused postponement of the bout, originally scheduled for Wednesday night. Loughran played handball for an hour at a local gymnasium and planned a few miles of roadwork before weighing in again at the offices of the New York State Commission tomorrow afternoon at 2 P.M. Latzo returned to Pompton Lakes, New Jersey, to work a few rounds with sparring partners. At the first weighing Wednesday afternoon, the champion barely made the class limit of 175 lbs., while Latzo tipped the beam at 169 1/2.
Burlington Free Press and Times, June 1, 1928, p. 13


June 1, 1928, in Brooklyn, New York (Ebbets Field), Tommy Loughran (Philadelphia), Light-Heavyweight Champion successfully defends his title, Win-15, Pete Latzo, former welterweight.
Burlington Free Press and Times, June 2, 1928, p. 13.


June 5, 1928, "To Fight in U.S." - Max Schmelling, German Heavyweight and Light Heavyweight champion (who) has come to America to meet Yankee battlers and reap Yankee gold. Max is 22, weights 187 lbs., and bears a physical resemblance to Jack Dempsey. (Includes picture). 
Plattsburgh Daily Republican, June 5, 1928, p. 1.


"Navy's Heavy Champ" - Bill Daring, a very able seaman, indeed, on board the U. S. S. Arkansas. Bill, though but 21 and a 186 pounder, is heavyweight boxing champion of the United States battle fleet. (Includes picture.)
Plattsburgh Daily Republican, June 5, 1928, p. 4.


June 7, 1928, Madison Square Garden, New York. "Emanuel Wins Decision Over Veteran McTigue" - For nine fleeting seconds tonight the pages of time fluttered backward, and in the cauliflowered ears of old Mike McTigue there rang the cheers of a large fight crowd as his opponent lay flat on the canvass, but John Armand Emanuel of California, past master, got up and after the sensational first round knockdown, hammered his way to victory over the aged Irishman, in ten rounds.

"Tunney-Heeney Fight is Set for July 26" - New York. Another flock of world's champion fighters had their names officially written down on the calendar today for appearances by the New York State boxing commission. The commissioners approved July 26 as the date, and the Yankee Stadium as the place for the world's heavyweight championship meeting between Gene Tunney, titleholder, and Tom Heeney, contender. There was no mention of the prices. Leo Lomski of Aberdeen, Washington, and Mickey Walker, the middleweight champion, were officially scheduled to meet July 4 at Ebbets Field, Brooklyn, in a 10 round bout. The bout between Tommy Loughran and Jimmy Slattery was officially set for June 28.
Plattsburgh Daily Republican, June 8, 1928, p. 1.


June 12, 1928, "Jimmy McLarnin To Fight McGraw" - New York. Jimmy McLarnin, Pacific Coast lightweight who failed in an attempt to lift the title from Sammy Mandell recently, will start his comeback in a bout with Phil McGraw, Detroit veteran, at Madison Square Garden, June 21. The fight was announced by Jess McMahon, Garden matchmaker after the state athletic commission reinstated McGraw, who was suspended three weeks ago for fouling Bobby Burns. Jimmy Slattery of Buffalo posted a $2,500 forfeit with the commision to guarantee weight and appearance for his light heavyweight title fight with Tommy Loughran, the champion, June 28, at the Garden. Johnny Risko and George Godfrey, heavyweight(s) were ordered to post similar forfeits for their bout at Ebbetts Field June 30.

"Kid Kaplan Suffers" - Meridien, Connecticut. Louis "Kid" Kaplan, veteran lightweight from an attack of influenza which caused postponement of two of his bouts.
Plattsburgh Daily Republican, June 13, 1928, p. 1.


June 13, 1928, "Gene Sure He'll Win Big Scrap" - Canajoharie, New York. Gene Tunney, world's heavyweight champion, will whip Tom Heeney, July 26, at New York, but believes he will have a man-sized job, he declared in an interview here today. "I am sure I have a big job on my hands, but I think that I will retain the championsip - I hope so at any rate. I feel fine today, and my chief trouble will be not going stale," he said. Tunney, who is training at Speculator, New York, at Lake Pleasant, completed another day of intensive exercise today, hitting the Adirondack (mountains) roads for six miles. He is alternating his boxing and running tactics to remain in the pink of condition. Tunney is now near his best fighting form. He said he would reach the peak of condition about two days before the fight, and that he would be able to freshen up a bit by the brief layoff. Tunney now weights 196 lbs., and he is the picture of health.

"Latzo Wins On Foul" Brooklyn, New York. Pete Latzo won the decision over Leo Lomaki on a foul in the fifth round of the scheduled ten round bout at Ebbets Field tonight.
Plattsburgh Daily Republican, June 14, 1928, p. 1.


January 4, 1929, Macon, Georgia - "Dempsey Will Fight Winner?" Former Champion Is Interviewed on Journey Southward and Leaves Sport Writers in Daze
Enroute to Miami, Florida, to talk it over with Tex Rickard, Jack Dempsey is issuing a one man consensus of the heavyweight situation, and as interpreted by his interviewers along the line, it runs something like this. "The winner of the Stribling-Sharkey fight at Miami Beach February 27, will be the next champion of the world. I am willing to meet the winner of the Stribling-Sharkey fight, but I will have no announcements to make until I Rickard. I'm not sure yet that I want to box again. I will not referee the Miami Beach fight. I believe George Godfrey, the negro, is the best among the crop of heavyweights just at present." The contributions to fight ballyhoo left the scribes in cities through which the former champion had passed in the last 24 hours dazed, and somewhat groggy. The gong will ring on the next round of the scribbler's battle with Dempsey at Miami Beach tonight and it appears Dempsey's mighty right has been blostered with rhetoric that will carry a knockout punch.

New York, New York - "Sharkey Fight Against Hoodoo." No Heavyweight Who Changed His Name Ever Attained to Championship.
Perhaps it's a bit late to bring the matter up, but if there is anything in ring precedent Jack Sharkey, the silent sailorman from Boston, never can win the heavyweight championship Gene Tunney renounced. He has the wrong name. Many years ago the broad-shouldered Lithuanian withdrew from Binghamton, New York to join the Navy and see the world. He reported to enlisting headquarters with a handle that read something like Paul Cuckoschay. Something had to be done about it, especially when the big youngster turned out to be quite a fighter aboard ship. There was no Joe Humphries among the Navy announcers. So Paul Cuckoschay, following along the trail of Tom Sharkey, another great heavyweight who came out from among Uncle Sam's seafarers and into fame, took the name Jack Sharkey. Later he petitioned the courts for legal title to the name and it was granted. If Sharkey, or Cuckoschay, had ever delved into heavyweight title records before submitting to the change, he might not have done that. For the records show that in the whole history of 46 heavyweight champions from the time of the Great Jimm Figg in 1719 down to James Joseph Tunney, nicknamed Gene, there never has been a title-holder who failed to fight under his own name. That if nothing else, gives young William Stribling, fighting under the family name, a slight advantage over the Boston Broadcaster in the battle at Miami Beach, Florida, February 27th. It means that Sharkey, if successful in his first engagement, still must face an additional hurdle to Jack Dempsey's left hook if he opposes the famous son of the Salt Lake Dempseys in the final round for the title.

"Says Dempsey To Fight Again!" Sports Writer Declares Former Champion Now Training for Come-back.
According to the New York American Jack Dempsey, the most popular boxer the world has ever known, has definitely agreed to make one more effort to win back the heavyweight championship he lost to Gene Tunney at Philadelphia in 1926. Formal announcement that the man mauler has pledged his word to meet the winner of the 1929 heavyweight elimination tournament will be made by Promoter Tex Rickard from Miami next week. Dempsey is now in Chicago enroute to Miami, where he expects to start light training this month. In a statement which the New York American learns Rickard has already prepared for the press, the promoter will say: (1) That Dempsey has agreed to meet the winner of the impending elimination tournament, and that the match will decide the rightful owner of the championship left vacant by the retirement of Gene Tunney. (2) That the match will be staged at New York during August or September, depending on the length of time it requires Dempsey to get in shape. (3) That he feels the public will agree that Dempsey as a former title-holder, should not be required to fight his way through the tournament. Although Rickard has no intention of divulging the remainder of his program at this time, the New York American learns, that he intends to limit the field of contenders to four men. They are Jack Sharkey, Paulino Uzeudun, William "Young" Stribling and Tom Heeney, who was defeated by Tunney in the former title holder's last appearance. Stribling and Sharkey are matched at Miami on February 27th, and Paulino and Heeney will meet in this city during March or April. The winners will be paired at the Polo grounds in June and the survivor will meet Dempsey in what will be advertised as a championship bout. Against any of the four named Dempsey would enter the ring with confidence. He has knocked out Sharkey and naturally feels that he can do so again. Paulino is the type who rushes his opponents, and Dempsey likes nothing better than having the battle carried to him. He believes he can knock down anything he can hit. Heeney's style is similar to that of Paulino. As for Stribling, Dempsey does not believe he will survive the Sharkey bout. He regards the other three as the more dangerous contenders. Dempsey would not attempt a comeback if he thought there was any likelihood of being called upon to meet Tommy Loughran, the light heavyweight champion. He would have to chase Loughran, and his two defeats by Tunney have convinced him that he lacks the speed that he would need against boxers. Rickard was willing to make any concession to secure Dempsey's services. The promoter has grossed more than $9,000,000 through fights in which Dempsey has been a principal and he believes that the battles of the century are a thing of the past unless Dempsey is part of the show. Against Dempsey at Chicago, Gene Tunney helped to draw a $2,667,000 gate, but against Tom Heeney a year later in New York, the proceeds dropped to 1/5 of that sum.
The Bennington Evening Banner, January 4, 1929, p. 6


October 29, 1929, Wrigley Field, Los Angeles. Mickey Walker successfully defended his middleweight crown here tonight when he gave Ace Hudkins, the Nebraska wildcat a terrific punching in ten rounds. Fighting in all his old time form, the champion not only outfought Hudkins in nearly every round but had the Nebraska slugger groggy on several occasions. It was the second meeting of the pair. Walker having defeated Hudkins in ten rounds in Chicago last year.
The Burlington Free Press, October 30, 1929, p. 1.


October 1, 1930, in Grand Forks, North Dakota, Spud Murphy, Moorhead, Minnesota, KO-5, Judy Ruddy, Grand Forks

in Flint, Michigan, Roger Bernard, Flint, KO-6, Seve Nugent, Cleveland, Ohio
The Brattleboro Daily Reformer, October 2, 1930, p. 9


January 1, 1931, in Columbus, Ohio, Lou Bloom, Columbus, Win-10, Eddie Anderson, Chicago, Illinois.

in Fargo, North Dakota, Billy Petrolle, Fargo, Outpointed-6, Billy Light, St. Paul, Minnesota.

in Chicago, Illinois, Mickey McFarland, Chicago, Outpointed-6, K. O. White, Chicago.

in Portland, Oregon, Charley Belanger, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, Outpointed-10, Leo Lomski, Aberdeen, Washington.

in Cincinnati, Ohio, Freddie Miller, Cincinnati, Outpointed-10, Roger Bernhard, Detroit, Michigan.

in Boston, Massachusetts, Jose Santa, Portugal, Outpointed-10, Roberto Roberti, Italy.

in Mexico City, Mexico, George Godfrey, Leiperville, Pennsylvania, KO-10, Salvatore Ruggirello, Italy.

in Buffalo, New York, Lou Scozza, Buffalo, Outpointed-10, Larry Johnson, Chicago, Illinois.

in Rochester, New York, Steve Halaiko, Auburn, New York, Outpointed-10, Wesley Ramey, Grand Rapids, Michigan.

in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Johnny Datto, Cleveland, Ohio, Outpointed-10, Jackie Rodgers, Pittsburgh.

in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Tait Littman, Cudahy, Wisconsin, KO-4, George Courtney, Tulsa, Oklahoma.


Harry Dublinsky, Chicago, Outpointed-10, Bruce Flowers, New Rochelle.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, January 2, 1931, p. 3


November 4, 1931, at Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, Bat Battalino, World Featherweight Champion successfully defended his title, Decision-10, Earl Mastro, Chicago. The fight was witnessed by 14,000 spectators.
Burlington Free Press & Times, November 5, 1931, p. 15.


July 4, 1932, Dempsey's Bowl, Reno Nevada. Max Baer, California heavyweight, scored a 20 round decision over King Levinsky of Chicago in a bruising battle here late today. The rangy Californian scored effectively all the way with a damaging attack to win Referee George Blake's decision. There was no dissension at the verdict as Baer piled up a big lead throughout the bout. A crowd of approximately 8,000 fans turned out for the fight. It was Baer's second voctory over the former fish peddler of Chicago. Baer won a 10 round decision in New York last year.
The Burlington Free Press & Times, July 5, 1932, p. 11.


July 5, 1932 - New York, "Boxing Experts Only to Broadcast Fights Hereafter."
As an outgrowth of controversy arising from Jack Sharkey's defeat of Max Schmeling for the heavyweight championship, the New York State Athletic Commission today barred any but "boxing experts" from broadcasting descriptions of future matches here. The commission defined as boxing experts, "sports writers, referees or judges." The radio description broadcast by Charles Francis Coe, novelist, and Graham McNamee, announcer, indicated Schmeling had a wide margin of points over Sharkey. Although a majority of the critics at the ringside also gave Schmeling an edge in the battling, and the vote of two judges and Referee Gunboat Smith was not unanimous, the decision was favorably received by many spectators, and approved by the boxing commision.
The Burlington Free Press & Times, July 6, 1932, p. 11.


October 3, 1932, in Vienna, Austria, Young Perez, Spain, Stopped-9, Percy Dexter, England.

in Terre Haute, Indiana, Sammy Slaughter, Terre Haute, Outpointed-10, Al Stillman, St. Louis, Missouri.

in New Orleans, Louisiana, Lu Terry, St. Louis, Missouri, Outpointed-10, Battling Shaw, New Orleans.

in Holyoke, Massachusetts, Norman Conrad, Wilton, New Hampshire, KO-5, Battling Archie, Hartford Negro


Stanley Winneryk, Lawrence, Outpointed-8, Jackie Cohen, New York.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, October 4, 1932, p. 3.


October 4, 1932, in Detroit, Michigan, Kid Chocolate, Cuba, Outpointed-10, Johnny Farr, Cleveland, Ohio.

George Riley, Detroit, Outpointed-6, Wilbur Chevalier, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

in Berlin, Germany, Vincez Hower, Germany, Stopped-4, Paul Bianchi, Argentina.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, October 5, 1932, p. 3.


October 5, 1932, in San Francisco, California, John Henry Lewis, Prescott, Arizona, Stopped-4, Fred Lenhart, Tacoma, Washington.

in Seattle, Washington, Andy Bundy, Portland, Oregon, Outpointed-6, Rodolfo Taglia, Argentina.

in Fall River, Massachusetts, Nat Bor, former national amateur lightweight champion, KO-1, Al Hope, South Boston.
D'Arcy White, New Bedford, Massachusetts, TKO-3, Francis Carter, Worcester, Massachusetts.
Nick Fusaro, Fall River, Decision-6, Stonewall Jackson, Lynn, Massachusetts.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, October 6, 1932, p. 3.


October 6, 1932, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Frankie Bojarski, Erie, Pennsylvania, Stopped-6, Ray an Hook, Pontiac, Michigan.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, October 7, 1932, p. 6.


October 7, 1932, in Boston, Massachusetts, Andy Callahan, Lawrence, Massachusetts, Outpointed-12, Lou Brouillard, Worchester, Massachusetts.

in Tampa, Florida, Primo Carnera, Italy, KO-4, Ted Sandwina, Sioux City, Iowa.

in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Lew Massey, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Outpointed-10, Johnny Datto, Pittsburgh.

in Hollywood, California, Vearle Whitehead, California, Outpointed-10, Milo Milletti, Omaha, Nebraska.

in San Diego, California, Cowboy Charlie Cobb, San Diego, Outpointed-10, Mike Payan, San Diego.

in New York, Jimmy McLarnin, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, Stopped-6, Benny Leonard, New York.
Teddy Yarosz, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Draw-10, Eddie Kid Wolfe, Memphis, Tennessee.
Baby Joe Gans, California, KO-2, Eddie Moore, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, October 8, 1932, p. 3.

October 10, 1932, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Bobby Leitham, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Outpointed-12, Tony Marino, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

in Charleston, West Virginia, Chuck Burns, San Antonio, Texas, Outpointed-10, Johnny Roberts, Charleston.


Greenie Demerse, Keene, New Hampshire, KO-2, Vince McNeil, Charleston.

in Terre Haute, Indiana, Tiger Jack Fox, Indianapolis, Indiana, Outpointed-10, Meyer (KO) Christner, Akron, Ohio.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, October 11, 1932, p. 3.

October 11, 1932, in Alexandria, Virginia, Joe Banovic, Binghampton, Outpointed-10, Sammy Weiss, Nazareth, Pennsylvania.


Joey Raymond, Baltimore, Maryland, Draw-8, Henry Irving, Washington.


Sammy Sweet, Cincinnati, Ohio, Stopped-1, Avelino Martin, Baltimore, Maryland.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, October 12, 1932, p. 3.

October 12, 1932, in Oakland, California, Speedy Dado, Philippines, Outpointed-10, Young Tommy, Philippines.

in Seattle, Washington, Andy Bundy, Portland, Oregon, Defeated-6, Abie Israel, Seattle.

in Reno, Nevada, King Tut, Minneapolis, Minnesota, KO-2, Johnny Freeman, Dayton, Ohio.

in Brooklyn, New York, Tony Canzoneri, Lightweight Champion, KO-3, Frankie Petrolle, Schenectady, New York (non title).


Arthur Huttick, New York, Outpointed-10, Walter Cobb, Baltimore, Maryland.


Paulie Walker, Trenton, New Jersey, KO-2, Eddie Hapiro, New York.


Maxie Rosenbloom, Brooklyn, Outpointed-10, Jack Redman, South Bend, Indiana.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, October 13, 1932, p. 3.

October 13, 1932, in Sacramento, California, Jimmy Evans, San Francisco, California, Defeated-10, Andy Divodi, New York.

in Stockton, California, Battling Bulahan, Manilla, Philippines, Outpointed-10 Tom Corbett, Omaha, Nebraska.

in New York, Kid Chocolate, Cuba, Stopped-12, Lew Feldman, New York.


Ben Jeby, New York, KO-6, Paul Pironne, Cleveland, Ohio.


Chick Devlin, San Francisco, California, Draw-10, Frank Battaglia, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

in Camden, New Jersey, Primo Carnera, Italy, KO-6, Gene Stanton, Cleveland, Ohio.


Jack Kilbourne, Australia, Outpointed-8, Jack Mackaway, New York.


Billy Hendrie, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Stopped-4, Buddy Pierce, Trenton, New Jersey.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, October 14, 1932, p. 7.

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January 2, 1933, in Chicago, Illinois, Harry Dublinsky, Chicago, Outpointed-10, Prince Saunders, Chicago.


Ray Tramblie, Rockford, Illinois, KO-4, Bob Groshek, Gary, Indiania.

in Philadelpahia, Pennsylvania, Jimmy Mack, Philadelphia, Outpointed-10, Matty White, Philadelphia.


Stumpy Jacobs, Norfork, Virginia, Outpointed-10, Tommy Conway, Philadelphia.

in Columbus, Ohio, Johnny Romans, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Outpointed-10, Tiger Kid Walker, Zanesville, Ohio.


Jackie Hoster, Columbus, Stopped-6, Louis Saunders, New Jersey.

in Scranton, Pennsylvania, Wildcat O'Connor, Carbondale, Pennsylvania, Draw-10, Jack Portney, Baltimore, Maryland.


Jimmy Phillips, Bernardsville, New Jersey, Outpointed-6, Tony Rock, Wayfield, Pennsylvania.

in Portland, Oregon, Young Firpo, Burke, Idaho, Outpointed-10, Leo Lomski, Aberdeen, Washington.

in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Frankie O'Brien, Hartford, Connecticut, KO-2, Tait Pittman, Cudahy, Wisconsin.


Ray Miller, Chicago, Illinois, Outpointed-10, Johnny Datto, Cleveland, Ohio.

in New York, Vince Dundee, Newark, New Jersey, Outpointed-10, Franta Nekolny, Czechoslovakia.


Patsy Pasculli, New York, Outpointed-3, Al Ridgeway, Union City, New Jersey.

in Buffalo, New York, Steve Halaiko, New York, KO-5, Joe Hall, Buffalo.


Joe Grant, Attica, New York, KO-6, Ray Gore, Buffalo.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, January 3, 1933, p. 3.


January 6, 1933, in San Francisco, California, Baby Arizmendi, Mexico, Outpointed-10, Archie Bell, Brooklyn, New York.

in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Battling Gizzy, Donora, Pennsylvania, Stopped-4, Louis Di Santis, Cleveland, Ohio.


Jimmy Thomas, Pittsburgh, Outpointed-10, Frankie Jarr, Fort Wayne, Indiana.

in New York, Ernie Schaaf, Boston, Massachusetts, Stopped-6, Stanley Poreda, Jersey City, New Jersey.


Charley Massera, New York, Outpointed-5, Joe Barlow, Boston, Massachusetts.


Sam Portney, Brooklyn, New York, Outpointed-5, Jack Poliseo, Newark, New Jersey.


Phil Johnson, Bayonne, New Jersey, Outpointed-5, Phil Lightfoot, Canada.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, January 7, 1933, p. 3.


January 9, 1933, in New York, Bep Van Klaveren, Holland, Outpointed-10, Phil Rafferty, New York.


Eddie Holmes, Providence, Rhode Island, Outpointed-8, Gordon Donahue, New York.

in Leeds, England, Larry Gains, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Stopped-6, Paul Hoffman, Holland.

in Holyoke, Massachusetts, Lou Brouillard, Worcester, Massachusetts, Outpointed-10, Horatio Velha, Hartford, Connecticut.

in Charleston, South Carolina, Bob Godwin, Daytona Beach, Florida, Outpointed-10, Eric Lawson, Brooklyn, New York.

in Newark, New Jersey, Young Terry, Trenton, New Jersey, Outpointed-10, Jack Rosenberg, New York.


Cowboy Owen Phelps, Phoenix, Arizona, Outpointed-10, Roscoe Manning, Newark.

in Terre Haute, Indiana, Jack Roper, Los Angeles, Californina, KO-3, Paul Pantaleo, Chicago, Illinois.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, January 10, 1933, p. 2.


January 10, 1933, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Tommy Loughran,
Philadelphia, Outpointed-10, King Levinsky, Chicago, Illinois.


Unknown Winston, Hartford, Connecticut, KO-1, Jim Darcy, Los Angeles, California.

in Alexandria, Virginia, Pete Sanstol, Norway, Outpointed-8, Jimmy Mack, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

in West Palm Beach, Florida, Dave Barry, St. Louis, Missouri, Draw-10, Johnny Gonzales, Los Angeles, California.

in Bismarck, North Dakota, Louis Ledtke, Aberdeen, North Dakota, Outpointed-8, Very Glodry, Britton, South Dakota.


Tuffy Mossett, Bismarck, Outpointed-6, Howard Ledtke, Fargo, North Dakota.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, January 11, 1933, p. 3, and BDR, January 12, 1933, p. 3.


March 10, 1933, at Madison Square Garden, Light-HeavyWeights, Maxie Rosenbloom, the Harlem Harlequin (174 lbs), Decision-15, over Adolph Heuser, Bulldog of the Rhine (172 lbs), before a crowd of 11,648. Referee: Jed Gahan.
Plattsburgh Daily Press, March 11, 1933, p. 2.


March 17, 1933, at Madision Square Garden, , Ben Jeby, World Middleweight Champion (159 1/2 lbs), and Vince Dundee, Baltimore (159 3/4 lbs), Draw-15, before a crowd of 11,000. Referee: Ed Fordes. Announcer: Joe Humphries.
Plattsburgh Daily Press, March 18, 1933, p. 2.


March 19, 1933, in Milan, Italy. Bantamweights, Al Brown, the Panama Negro (117 1/2 lbs) Outpointed-12, Dominick Bernasconi, Italian Title holder (117 1/2 lbs).
Plattsburgh Daily Press, March 20, 1933, p. 2.


March 20, 1933, in Buffalo, New York, Lou Scozza (173 1/2 lbs) TKO-5, over George Nichols (165 lbs) former National Boxing Association Light-HeavyWeight Champion. Referee: Jimmy Goodrich.


Also on the same card, Steve Halaiko (140 lbs) Defeated-10, Sammy Bruce, Albany, New York (141 lbs). and Featherweights Boy Lathron and Joe Gerace, a Draw.
Plattsburgh Daily Press, March 21, 1933, p. 2.


March 21, 1933, Scheduled for 10 rounds in Los Angeles. Freddie Miller, Cincinnati, Ohio, National Boxing Commission Featherweight Champion vs Speedy Dado, the Filipino Scrapper.
Plattsburgh Daily Press, March 20, 1933, p. 2.


March 22, 1933, in Chicago, Lightweights Barney Ross (Chicago) Decision-10, over Billy Petrolle, Fargo, North Dakota.
Plattsburgh Daily Press, March 23, 1933, p. 2.


March 24, 1933, Madison Square Garden, Maxie Rosenbloom, TKO-4, over Bob Godwin, Daytona, Florida (175 lbs), former National Boxing Association title holder.
Plattsburgh Daily Press, March 25, 1933, p. 2.


1934, Frederick Faust (Max Brand) writes a western novel entitled "Marbleface," a story about a middleweight contender, Jerry Ash, turned cowboy after being KO'd by Digger Murphy.


October 1, 1934, London, Freddie Miller, N.B.A. Featherweight Champ, Outpointed-10, Dave Crowley, Great Britain (Non-title).


in Cleveland, Ohio, Midget Wolgast (120 lbs), New York, Outpointed-10, Babe Triscaro (117) Cleveland.


in Holyoke, Massachusetts, Tony Celli (168 1/2 lbs) Leominster, Massachusetts, Outpointed-8, Al Trulmans (162 1/2 lbs) San Diego, California.


in Hartford, Connecticut, Bat Battalino (136 lbs) Harford, Outpointed-10, Lew Feldman (132 lbs) New York.


in Buffalo, New York, Big Boy Brackey (217 lbs) Buffalo, K0-2 over Walter Potter (192 lbs) Buffalo.


in Syracuse, New York, Eddie Karolak (180 lbs) New York Outpointed-6, Johnny Nelson (175 lbs).


in Chicago, Illinois, Tracy Cox (140 lbs) Indianapolis, Indiana, Stopped-6, Tommy Corbett (140 lbs) Omaha, Nebraska; Little Pal (130 lbs) East Chicago, Outpointed-6, Charles Mack (127 lbs) Los Angeles, California; Freddy Chynewth (140 1/2 lbs) Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Outpointed-6, Billy Gladstone (138 lbs) Chicago.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, October 2, 1934, p. 3.


October 3, 1934, Cincinnati, Ohio, Roughhouse Glover (163 lbs) Jacksonville, Florida shaded, Carl Knowles (169 lbs) Savannah, Georgia; Al Schwartz (135 lbs) Cincinnati, KO-6 over Bulldog Downs (133 lbs) Savannah; Jack Crawford (155 lbs) Portsmouth, O., Draw with Red Goss (153 lbs) Savannah.


in San Francisco, California, John Henry Lewis (178 lbs) Phoenix, Arizona, Draw-10 with Donald "Reds" Barry (200 lbs) Washington, D. C.; Ray Actis (170 lbs) San Fransico Stopped-2, Walter Kirkwood (173 lbs) Washington, D. C.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, October 4, 1934, p. 10.


January 1, 1935, Scranton, Pennsylvania, Eddie "Babe" Riski (162 lbs) Syracuse, New York, Stopped-7, Teddy Yarosz (160 1/2 lbs) Monaca, Pennsylvania (Non-title bout).


Mexico, D. F., Albert "Baby" Arizmendi (NY Featherweight Champion), Outpointed-12, Henry Armstrong, California.


St. Petersburo, Florida, Carl Guggino (131 lbs) St. Petersburo, Outpointed-10, Terry McGovern (132 lbs) St. Petersburo, and Sollie Carter (140 lbs) Bridgeport, Connecticut, Outpointed-8, Charlie Webber (148 lbs).
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, January 2, 1935, p. 3.


January 2, 1935, Newark, New Jersey, Vince Dundee (164 lbs) Belleville, Stopped-5, Vincenzo Troiano (159 1/2 lbs) Italy.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, January 3, 1935, p. 3.


January 3, 1935, Tacoma, Washington, Al Spina (120 1/4 lbs) Portland, Oregon, Draw-10, with Matty "Baby Face" Matheson (118 1/4 lbs) Buffalo, New York.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, January 4, 1935, p. 3.


January 4, 1935, in Detroit, Michigan, Joe Louis (195 lbs) Detroit, Outpointed-10, Patsy Perroni (187 lbs) Boston, Massachusetts.


Jacob Buddy Baer (240 lbs) Livermore, California, Stopped-2, Jack Dowd (210 lbs) Detroit.


Billy Treest (165 lbs) Batavia, Illinois, Outpointed-6, Frank Karpinoski (159 lbs) Detroit.


Johnny Vorce (180 lbs) Detroit, Outpointed, Buck Tracy (175 lbs) Boston.


Max Baer (215 lbs) World Heavyweight Champ vs Babe Hunt (201 lbs) Ponca City, Oklahoma. Exhibition, 4 rounds.


in Chicago, Illinois, Frankie Sigilio (139 1/2 lbs) Chicago, Stopped-3, Lou Jallos (138 1/2 lbs) Cleveland, Ohio.


Freddie Caserio (164 lbs) Chicago, Outpointed-6, Jack Charvez (164 lbs) Phoenix, Arizona.


in Paris, Freddy Miller (127 lbs) Cincinnati, Ohio, KO-7, Francois Auger (128 lbs) France.


in San Francisco, California, Pietro Georgi (172 lbs) Buffalo, New York, Outpointed-6, Billy Donahue (172 lbs) New York.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, January 5, 1935, p. 3.


Article on Harry Krakow (King Levinsky), Time Magazine, January 7, 1935, p. 68.

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January 7, 1935, in Newark, New Jersey, Tony Canzoneri (140 1/4 lbs) New York, KO-2, Eddie Ran (143 1/2 lbs) Poland.


in Chicago, Illinois, Harry Booker (134 1/2 lbs) Chicago, Outpointed-6, Johnny Fitzpatrick (132 3/4 lbs) New York.


Nestor Bruggeman (151 lbs) Chicago, Outpointed-4, Sammy Adams (145 1/2 lbs) Bridgeport, Connecticut.


in Holyoke, Massachusetts, Carlos Soloman (146 1/4 lbs) Mexico, Stopped-3, Elmer Bezenah (148 lbx) Cincinnati, Ohio.


in Albany, New York, Tommy Romano (154 1/2 lbs) Watervliet, New York, Outpointed-8, Sid Cohen (161 lbs) Florida, New York.


Joe Gainer (168 lbs) Troy, New York, Defeated-8, Panama Jimmy Brown (172 1/2 lbs) Panama.


in Syracuse, New York, Joey Brown (124 lbs) Syracuse, Outpointed-8, Joey Izzo (127 lbs) Hartford.


Eddie Marks (143 lbs) New York, Defeated-8, Eugene Emanuel (143 lbs) Syracuse.


Honeyboy Huges (137 lbs) Glens Falls, New York, Won-8, Eddie Dempsey (139 lbs) Syracuse.


in New York, Izzy Jannazo (146 1/2 lbs) New York, Defeated-10, Tony Falco (142 1/2 lbs) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.


Tony Fernandez (128 1/2 lbs) Cuba, KO-3, Earl Lester,(129 lbs) New York.

Brattleboro Daily Reformer, January 8, 1935, p. 3


January 8, 1935, in Duluth, Minnesota, Jock Moore, (147 lbs) Proctor, Minnesota, Outpointed-6, Max Kalbrenner (146 lbs) Fargo, North Dakota.


Wen Lambert (142 lbs) Proctor, Draw-4, Red Martin (138 lbs) Minneapolis, Minnesota.


Marty Teller (140 1/2 lbs) Hibbing, Minnesota, Outpointed-6, Johnny Gould (141 lbs) Minneapolis.


Jim Hannigan (147 lbs) Proctor, Outpointed-3, Joe Preberg (145 lbs) Eveleth, Minnesota.


Bill Cody (130 lbs) Proctor, Draw-3, Punchy Finelli (134 lbs) Hibbing.


Joe Michaud (124 lbs) Duluth, KO, Joe Walsh (128 lbs) Duluth.


in Fargo, North Dakota, Freddie Atkinson (145 lbs) Detroit, Michigan, Outpointed-6, Billy Norton (145 lbs) Fargo.


in Vancouver, British Columbia, Gordon Wallace (147 lbs) Vancouver, KO-8, Ron Headley (146 lbs) Ottawa, Ontario.
Barre Daily Times, January 9, 1935, p. 2. and Brattleboro Daily Reformer, January 9, 1935, p. 3.


January 10, 1935, in New Haven, Connecticut, Al Gainer, New Haven, Stopped-10, Lou Poster, Pottstown, Pennsylvania.


in Tacoma, Washington, Freddie Steele (156 3/4 lbs) Tacoma, Outpointed-10, Tommy Rios (158 1/4 lbs) Wilmington, Delaware.


in Seattle, Washington, Cecil Payne (139 lbs) Louisvillle, Kentucky, KO-2, Johnny Pasco (142 lbs) Seattle.


in Miami, Florida, Joe Knight (181 lbs) Cairo, Georgia, KO-2, Eddie Karolak (190 lbs) Schenectady, New York.


Harry Schuman (151 1/2 lbs) Chicago, Illinois, KO-3, Willie Fitzgerald (166 lbs) California.


in Boston, Massachusetts, Max Baer, World Heavyweight Champion, Outpointed-4, Dick Madden, Boston (Exhibition).


Babe Hunt, Ponca City, Oklahoma, Outpointed-4, Buddy Baer (239 lbs) Livermore, California.


in Dallas, Texas, Henry Hook (121 lbs) Indianapolis, Indiana, Outpointed-10, Kid Barrilito (123 lbs) Monterey, Mexico.


Manuel Laredo (121 lbs) Mexico, D. F., Outpointed-6, Frankie Hodges (118 lbs) Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Brattleboro Daily Reformer, January 11, 1935, p. 11.


January 11, 1935, in New York, Lou Ambers (133 3/4 lbs) Herkimer, New York, Outpointed-10, Harry Dublinsky (140 1/4 lbs) Chicago, Illinois.


Leonard Del Genio (135 1/2 lbs) New York, Stopped-6, Frankie Wallace (133 3/4 lbs) Cleveland, Ohio.


Joe Tei Ken (117 1/2 lbs) Korea, KO-5, Charles Zeletes (118 lbs) Barrington, New Jersey.


in Boston, Massachusetts, Bob Olin (176 1/2 lbs) Outpointed-10, Fanis Tzanatopolous (176 1/4 lbs) Lynn.


Al Boros (188 1/2 lbs) Bridgeport, Outpointed-8, Larry Johnson (191 1/2 lbs) Chicago, Illinois.

Brattleboro Daily Reformer, January 12, 1935, p. 3


February 7, 1935, in Paterson, New Jersey, Paul Cavalier (196 lbs) Paterson, Outpointed-10, Larry Johnson (194 lbs) Chicago, Illinois.


in Tacoma, Washington, Fred Lenhart (177 1/2 lbs) Tacoma, KO-4, Billy Donahue (169 lbs) New York.


Baby Joe Gans (152 lbs) Los Angeles, California, Stopped-6, Andy Divoldi (153 lbs) New York.


in Seattle, Washington, Cecil Jordan (146 lbs) Portland, Oregon, Draw-6, Mickey McCafferty (145 lbs) St. Paul, Minnesota.


in Bennington, Vermont, Johnny Nelson (175 lbs) Syracuse, New York, Decision-8, Tony Celli (171 lbs) Leominster, Massachusetts.


in Portland, Maine, Ossie Stewart (161 lbs) Augusta, Maine, KO-2, Maurice Gosselin (162 lbs) Lawrence, Massachusetts.
Barre Daily Times, February 8, 1935, p. 2.


February 11, 1935, in Buffalo, New York, Johnny Freeman (181 lbs) Salamanca, New York, Outpointed-6, Big Boy Brackey (207 lbs) Lackawanna, New York.
Barre Daily Times, February 12, 1935, p. 2.


February 28, 1935, in Dayton, Ohio, Alabama Kid (159 lbs) Dayton, Outpointed-10, Solly Dukelsky (160 lbs) Chicago, Illinois.


in Grand Forks, North Dakota, Babe Daniels (135 lbs) Duluth, Minnesota, Outpointed-6, Kid Rippatoe (140 lbs) Fargo, North Dakota.


Louis "Kid" Fettig (160 lbs) Grand Forks, Outpointed-6, Stanley Dorgan (178 lbs) Duluth.


in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Wildcat O'Connor (144 lbs) Scranton, Pennsylvania, Draw-8, Bucky Jones (146 lbs) Philadelphia.


in Portland, Maine, Ginger Beck (145 lbs) Portland, Outpointed-10, Tommy Gaffney (142 lbs) Dover, New Hampshire.
Barre Daily Times, March 1, 1935, p. 2.


March 1, 1935, at Madison Square Garden, Lou Ambers (lightweight) Herkimer, New York, Decision-15, Sammy Fuller, Boston, Massachusetts
Burlington Free Press, March 1, 1935, p. 17, and The Barre Daily Times, March 2, 1935, p. 2.


March 5, 1935, in Elizabeth, New Jersey, Tony Galento (218 lbs) Orange, New Jersey, Stopped-5, Larry Johnson (192 lbs) Chicago, Illinois.


in Fargo, North Dakota, Kid Rippatoe (138 lbs) Fargo, Stopped-6, Billy Norton (148 lbs) Fargo.


Howard Sheik (153 lbs) Fargo, Stopped-4 Harold Nelson (148 lbs) Salem, Oregon.


in St. Petersburg, Florida, Joe Lipps (176 lbs) Charlotte, North Carolina, Outpointed-10, Izzy Singer (173 1/2 lbs) New York.


Buddy Holinbeck (168 lbs) Terre Haute, Indiana, Outpointed-8, Frankie Burns (170 lbs) West Palm Beach, Florida.
Barre Daily Times, March 6, 1935, p. 2.


March 10, 1935, in Hamburg, Germany, Max Schmeling Win-9 over Steve Hamas.
Burlington Free Press, March 8, 1935, p. 15.


March 11, 1935, in Paris, France, Freddie Miller (128 lbs) Cincinnati, Ohio, Outpointed-10, Johnny Edwards (129 lbs) France.


in Dayton, Ohio, Alabama Kid (158 lbs) Dover, Ohio, Stopped-3, Joe Simonich (160 lbs) Butte, Montana.


in New Orleans, Louisiana, Sylvan Bass (153 1/2 lbs) Baltimore, Maryland, Outpointed-10, Eddie Flynn (151 1/2 lbs) New Orleans.
Barre Daily Times, March 12, 1935, p. 2.


in Syracuse, New York, Eddie "Babe" Risko (161 lbs) Syracuse, KO-2, Benny Levine (158 lbs) Newark, New Jersey.


Joe Vignali (138 lbs) New York, Outpointed-8, Bad Boy Emmanuel (142 lbs) Syracuse.


Ted Smith (150 lbs) Cleveland, Ohio, KO-2, Johnny Baker (147 lbs) Rochester, New York.


in Albany, New York, Hookie Jackson (150 1/4 lbs) Boston, Massachusetts, Outpointed-8, Bob Turner (165 lbs) Baltimore, Maryland.


Eddie Haas (127 lbs) Worcester, Massachusetts, Outpointed-6, Ronald Santos (128 1/4 lbs) New York.


in Chicago, Illinois, Chicago Lightweights Eddie Ward, KO-3, Harry Booker.


Tony Zale (158 3/4 lbs) Gary, Indiana, Outpointed-8, Max (Kingfish) Elling (154 3/4 lbs) Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.


in Holyoke, Massachusetts, Steven Halaiko (138 3/4 lbs) Auburn, New York, Draw-10, Billy McMahon (137 1/2 lbs) New York.


in Newark, New Jersey, Joe Kuhal (173 lbs) Elizabeth, New Jersey, Draw-8, Frank Zamaris (172 lbs) Orange, New Jersey.

Barre Daily Times, March 12, 1935, p. 2.


March 15, 1935, in Chicago, Illinois, Tony Canzoneri (134 1/4 lbs) New York, Outpointed-10, Chuck Woods (138 lbs) Detroit, Michigan.


Wesley Ramey 136 1/2 lbs) Grand Rapids, Michigan, Outpointed-10, Frankie Sagilio (139 lbs) Cicero


Sammy Chivas (142 lbs) Detroit, Michigan, Draw-6, Dick Sisk (141 lbs) Chicago.


Billy Treest (168 1/2 lbs) St. Charles, Illinois, Stopped-4, Lee Savoldi (174 lbs) St. Paul, Minnesota.


Mike Belloise (127 lbs) New York, Stopped-5, Orville Brouillard (133 lbs) Windsor, Ontario, Canada.


in New York, Heavyweights Primo "Man Mountain" Carnera (268 lbs) New York, TKO-9, Ray "Skyscraper" Impellitiere (258 1/2 lbs) Cold Springs, New York.


Abe Feldman (181 1/2 lbs) New York, Outpointed-8, Steve Dudas (182 1/2 lbs) Edgewater, New Jersey.


in San Francisco, California, Lou Brouillard (155 1/2 lbs) Worcester, Massachusetts, Stopped-7, Babe Marino (143 lbs) San Francisco.


in Wheeling, West Virginia, Mose Butch (126 lbs) Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Stopped-8, Wesley Martin (126 lbs) Akron, Ohio.


Lloyd Pine (125 lbs) Akron, Outpointed-6, Barney Ruffern (127 lbs) Youngstown, Ohio.


Billy Rand (136 lbs) Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Draw-6, Stan Nagey (139 lbs).


in Grand Forks, North Dakota, Louis Fittig, Grand Forks, Outpointed-6, Stanley Dorgan, Duluth, Minnesota.


K. O. Walsh (171 lbs) Moorhead, Minnesota, Draw-4, Cy Vester (170 lbs) Duluth.

Barre Daily Times, March 16, 1935, p. 2 and Burlington Free Press, March 15, 1935, p. 17.


March 18, 1935, in Buffalo, New York, Joe Gerace (128 lbs) Buffalo, Outpointed-6, Mickey Devine (128 lbs) Batavia, New York.
Barre Daily Times, March 19, 1935, p. 2.


March 22, 1935, in New York, James J. Braddock (182 1/4 lbs) New Jersey, Outpointed-15, Art Lasky (197 lbs) Minneapolis, Minnesota.


Steve Dudas (182 lbs) Edgewater, New Jersey, Stopped-6, Tom Patrick (183 lbs) California.


in Boston, Massachusetts, Al McCoy (171 lbs) Canada, Stopped-8, Bob Goodwin (174 lbs) Daytona Beach, Florida.


in Detroit, Michigan, Holman Williams (133 lbs) Detroit, Outpointed-10, Tommy Paul (134 lbs) Buffalo, New York.


in Hollywood, California, Lou Brouillard (157 1/2 lbs) Worcester, Massachusetts, Outpointed-10, Milford "Swede" Berglund (160 lbs) San Bernardino, California.


in New Haven, Connecticut, Al Gainer (173 lbs) New Haven, Outpointed-10, Al Borros (193 1/2/ lbs) Bridgeport, Connecticut.


in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Benny Bass (135 lbs) Philadelphia, Outpointed-10, Mike Marshall (138 1/2 lbs) Philadelphia.


in Burlington, Vermont, Gerald Markey (131 lbs) Burlington, Draw-8, Joe March (135 lbs) Montreal, Canada.
Barre Daily Times, March 23, 1935, p. 2.


March 25, 1935,in Cleveland, Ohio, Bob Olin (176 lbs) world light heavyweight champion, Outpointed-8, Mickey Dugan (176 lbs) Cleveland (non-title).


Jimmy Belmont (157 lbs) Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, No Decision-8, Eddie "Babe" Risko (161 lbs) Syracuse, New York.


Paul Pirrone (162 1/2 lbs) Cleveland, Outpointed-8, Solly Dukelsky (160 lbs) Chicago, Illinois.


Carmen Barth (163 1/2 lbs) Cleveland, Stopped-1, Abie Bain, New York.


Tommy Romano (153 lbs) Albany, New York, Outpointed-8, Joey Bazzone (153 lbs) Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.


in Washington, Petey Sarron (129 lbs) Birmingham, Alabama, Outpointed-10, Joe Rivers (132 lbs) Long Beach, California.


Roddy Davis (140 lbs) Washington, KO-6, Pat Sylvester (137 lbs) New York.


Elmer Bezenah (150 lbs) Cincinnati, Ohio, Draw-6, Mickey Landis (151 lbs) Lancaster, Pennsylvania.


Kid Ingram (132 lbs) Miami, Florida, Outpointed-6, Al Raggone (127 lbs) New York.


Henry Irving (165 lbs) Washington, KO-2, George McCarron (167 lbs) Scranton, Pennsylvania.


in Baltimore, Maryland, Sylvan Bass (148 1/2 lbs) Baltimore, Outpointed-10, Jimmy Jones (149 1/2lbs) Baltimore.


Arthur Dantley (166 lbs) Baltimore, KO-3, Dynamite Sprouts (172 lbs) Norfolk, Virginia.


Billy Ely (138 lbs) Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, KO-6, Calvin Reed (137 lbs) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.


in Chicago, Illinois, Billy Miller (146 lbs) Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Draw-8, Puggy Weinert (149 lbs) Chicago.


Lancaster, Pennsylvania, Joe Smallwood (157 lbs) Lancaster, Outpointed-8, Tommy Rios (162 lbs) Wilmington, Delaware.


in Newark, New Jersey, Freddie Cochrane (131 lbs) Elizabeth, New Jersey, Outpointed-8, Julie Katz (129 lbs) New York.


in Holyoke, Massachusetts, Eddie Brink (135 lbs) Scranton, Pennsylvania, Outpointed-10, Joey Greb (137 1/4 lbs) New York.


in Albany, New York, Jackie Aldare (156 1/2 lbs) New York, Outpointed-8, Sammy Bruce (152 1/2 lbs) Albany.
Barre Daily Times, March 26, 1935, p. 2.


March 26, 1935, in Paris, France, European Featherweight Championship, Maurice Heltzer (125 1/2 lbs) Outpointed-15, Vittorio Tamagnini (123 1/2 lbs) Italy.


in Reading, Pennsylvania, Danny Devlin (151 lbs) Allentown, Pennsylvania, Outpointed-10, Pat Igo (148 lbs) Shenandoah, Pennsylvania.


Pottsville, Pennsylvania, Billy Ketchell (170 lbs) Millville, New Jersey, Outpointed-10, Chester Palutis (170 lbs) Scranton, Pennsylvania.
Barre Daily Times, March 27, 1935, p. 2.


March 27, 1935, in Dallas, Texas, Kingfish Levinsky (204 lbs) Chicago, Illinois, Outpointed-10, Babe Hunt (196 lbs) Ponca City, Oklahoma.


Ace Dodge (198 lbs) Indianapolis, Indiana, Outpointed-10, Bob Williams (192 lbs) Ponca City, Oklahoma.


Moon Mullins, Chicago, Illinois, Outpointed-8, Jimmy Lacoume, New Orleans, Louisiana.


in Barcelona, Spain, Freddie Miller (128 1/2 lbs) Cincinnati, Ohio, Outpointed-10, Cuadrini (128 lbs) Italy.


in Cincinnati, Ohio, Roughouse Glover (161 lbs) Jacksonville, Florida, KO-9, Tony Zale (159 lbs) Gary, Indiana.


in Oakland, California, Tommy Corbett (141 lbs) Omaha, Nebraska, Outpointed-6, Emil Cody (139 lbs) Stockton, California.


Jimmy Duffy (137 lbs) Reno, Nevada, Draw-4, Benny Paris (135 lbs) Oakland.

Barre Daily Times, March 28, 1935, p. 2.

March 29, 1935, in Detroit, Michigan, Joe Louis (196 lbs) Detroit, Outpointed-10, Natie Brown (186 lb) Washington.


Roy Lazar (190 lbs) Newark, New Jersey, Outpointed-8, Adolph Wiator (186 lbs) Green Bay, Wisconsin.


Al Diamond (169 lbs) Newark, New Jersey, Outpointed-8, Gene Stanley (161 lbs) Mt. Clemens, Michigan.


Lefty Gwynne (119 lbs) Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Outpointed-5, Babe Triacaro (119 lbs) Cleveland, Ohio.


Billy Treest (167 lbs) Batavia, Illinois, Outpointed-5, Oscar Schmeling (168 lbs) Canton, Ohio.


in Huntington, West Virginia, Tiger Hairston (171 lbs) Huntington, Outpointed-10, Alabama Kid (160 lbs) Dover, Ohio.


Bob Edwards (166 lbs) Hamlin, West Virginia, Stopped-2, Soldier Jones (173 lbs) Dayton, Ohio.


in Hollywood, California, Frank Hankinson (219 lbs) Akron, Ohio, KO-2, Charles Retzlaff (203 lbs) Duluth, Minnesota.


in San Diego, California, Husky Velasco (134 lbs) San Diego, Stopped-3, Red Stephens (132 lbs) Los Angeles, California.


in Boise, Idaho, Frank Wallulia (195 lbs) Seattle, Washington, KO-2, Jack Willis (187 lbs) Los Angeles, California.

Barre Daily Times, March 30, 1935, p. 2.


March 31, 1935, in Mexico, D. F., Alberto (Baby) Arizmendi (132 lbs) Mexico, Stopped-6, Frankie Wallace (132 lbs) Cleveland, Ohio


Manuel Villa, Mexico, Outpointed-10, Young Peter Jackson, Los Angeles, California.


Davey Abad, Panama, outpointed-10, Henry Armstrong, Los Angeles, California.
Barre Daily Times, April 1, 1935, p. 2.


April 1, 1935, in Oklahoma City, King Levinsky (202 lbs) Chicago, KO-2 over Joe Rice (196 lbs) Fort Worth, Texas.


in Trenton, New Jersey, Young Terry (159 1/2 lbs) Trenton, Stopped-3 over Joe Mandarano (164 lbs) Manayunk, Pennsylvania


in Albany, New York, Hookie Jackson (157 1/2 lbs) Boston, Massachusetts, Stopped-7, Charlie Eagles (164 lbs) Waterbury, Connecticut.


in Chicago, Illinois, Jackie Sharkey (130 1/4 lbs) Minneapolis, Minnesota, Outpointed-8, Orville Drouillard (131 3/4 lbs) Windsor, Ontario, Canada.


in San Francisco, California, Joe Rondon (150 lbs) Mountain View, California, Stopped-3 over Al Evans (149 lbs) Montreal, Canada.


Freddie Steele (157 lbs) Tacoma, Washington, Stopped-10, Fred Apostoli (157 lbs) San Francisco.


Johnnie Fasano (138 lbs) San Francisco, Stopped-6, Battling Bulahan (138 lbs) Manila.


in Newark, New Jersey, Frank Zamaris (171 lbs) Orange, New Jersey, Outpointed-8, Abie Bain (171 lbs) Newark.


in Plainfield, New Jersey, Charlie Loughern (165 lbs) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Outpointed-8, Al Zappala (163 lbs) New York.


in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Fritzie Zivic (143 lbs) Pittsburgh, Draw-10, Dominic Mancini (140 lbs) Pittsburgh.


Jimmy Vaughan (140 lbs) Cleveland, Outpointed-8, Mike Barto (141 lbs) New Kensington, Pennsylvania.


Barney Ruffer (136 lbs) New Kensington, Outpointed-6, Battling Gizzy (140 1/2 lbs) Donora, Pennsylvania.


in New Orleans, Louisiana, Tracy Cox (140 1/2 lbs) Indianapolis, Indiana, Stopped-7, Pete Nebo (143 lbs) Key West, Florida.


Carl Schaffer (136 1/4 lbs) Detroit, Outpointed-10, Lou Terry (133 lbs) St. Louis, Missouri.


in Holyoke, Massachusetts, Frankie Hughes, (138 1/2 lbs) Washington, Outpointed-10, Lou Lombardi (137 1/2 lbs) Jersey City, New Jersey.


Brattleboro Daily Reformer, April 2, 1935, p. 3., and The Barre Daily Times, April 2, 1935, p. 2.


April 8, 1935, in New York, Bobby Pacho (128 lbs) Cleveland, Ohio, Outpointed-8, Johnny Zodda (133 lbs), New York.


Izzy Gibbs (134 3/4 lbs) New York, Draw-4, Karol Ticon (131 1/2 lbs) New Hampshire.


in Dayton, Ohio, Alabama Kid (160 lbs) Doer, Ohio, Outpointed-10, Tiger Hariston (168 lbs) Huntington, West Virginia.


in Chicago, Illinois, Billy Miller (146 lbs) Milwaukee, Outpointed-8, Puggy Wainert (148 lbs) Chicago.


Nestor Bruggeman (151 1/2 lbs) Outpointed-6, Syl Saluski (151 1/2 lbs) Milwaukee, Wisconsin.


in Quincy, Illinois, Allen Matthews (155 lbs) St. Louis, KO-3, Ernie Kirschner (156 lbs) New York.


in Washington, D. C., Joe Doherty, (128 lbs) New York, Outpointed-10, Frankie Wofram (125 lbs) Toledo, Ohio.


Joey Green (128 lbs) Washington, Outpointed-6, Le Guesno (127 lbs) Baltimore, Maryland.


Ray Ingram (132 lbs) Miami, Florida, Outpointed-6, Wesley Martin (130 lbs) Toledo, Ohio.


Harry Jeffia (125 lbs) Baltimore, Maryland, Outpointed-6, Lloyd Pine (127 lbs) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.


in Newark, New Jersey, Joie Greb, (140 1/2 lbs) Herkimer, New York, Outpointed-8, Bucky Keyes (137 1/2 lbs) Jersey City.


in Albany, New York, Sammy Bruce (152 1/2 lbs) Albany, Stopped-6, Al Salbano (156 lbs) Syracuse, New York.


in New Orleans, Louisiana, Eddie Flynn (151 1/4 lbs) New Orleans, KO-4, Billy Hood, (153 3/4 lbs) Orlando, Florida.


Holyoke, Massachusetts, Terry Mitchell (185 lbs) New York, Outpointed-10, Eddie Winston (195 lbs) Hartford, Connecticut.
Barre Daily Times, April 9, 1935, p. 2.


April 10, 1935, in Grand Rapids, Michigan, Max Baer (215 lbs) Heavyweight Champion, 4 Round Exhibition with Ed Wills, Chicago, No Decision.


Wesley Ramey (135 lbs) Grand Rapids, Outpointed-8, Roger Bernard (130 lbs) Flint, Michigan.

Buddy Baer (242 lbs) Livermore, California, Stopped-3, Harry Nelson (206 lbs) Detroit, Michigan.
Barre Daily Times, April 11, 1935, p. 2.

April 15, 1935, in New York, Bobby Pacho (138 3/4 lbs) Cleveland, Draw-8, Leonard Del Genio (135 1/2 lbs) New York.


Louis Camps (130 3/4 lbs) New York, Outpointed-8, Joe Santos (129 1/2 lbs) Portugal.


in Denver, Colorado, King Levinsky (197 1/2 lbs) Chicago, Stopped-4, Hans Birkie (197 lbs) Germany.


In Chicago, Illinois, Sammy Chivas (144 1/4 lbs) Detroit, Outpointed-8, Eddie Carroll (146 lbs) Toronto, Ontario.


in Miami, Florida, Johnny Lucas (137 lbs) Camden, New Jersey, Outpointed-10, Jackie Davis (143 1/2 lbs) Cleveland, Ohio.


in Washington, D. C., Izzy Jannazzo (143 lbs) New York, Outpointed-10, Phil Furr (144 lbs) Washington.


in Holyoke, Massachusetts, Jimmy Leto (139 1/2 lbs) Hartford, Connecticut, Outpointed-10, Eddie Brink (136 1/2 lbs) Scranton, Pennsylvania.


in Newark, New Jersey, Frankie Cinque (141 lbs) New York, Outpointed-8, Irish Jimmy Brady (145 lbs) Elizabeth, New Jersey.


in Plainfield, New Jersey, Butch Lynch (156 lbs) Plainfield, Outpointed-7, Joe Gorman (155 lbs) New York.
Barre Daily Times, April 16, 1935, p. 2.


April 18, 1935, in Hollywood, California, Maxie Rosenbloom (182 1/2 lbs) New York, Outpointed-10, Charlie Massera (180 lbs) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.


in Kalamazoo, Michigan, Max Baer (World Heavyweight Champion) vs Battling J. D., Erie, Pennsylvania, Exhibition.


in Sacramento, California, Al Manferdo (149 lbs) Fresno, California, Outpointed-10, Ceferino Garcia (148 lbs) Phillipines.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, April 19, 1935, p. 7.


April 22, 1935, in Buffalo, New York, George Big Boy Brackey (217 lbs) Lackawanna, KO-1, Joe Doctor (196 lbs) Buffalo.
Barre Daily Times, April 23, 1935, p. 2.


April 23, 1935, in Cleveland, Ohio, Paul Pirrone (158 lbs), Cleveland, KO-1, Benny Levine (157 lbs), Newark, New Jersey.


in Seattle, Washington, Freddie Steele (156 1/4 lbs) Tacoma, Washington, KO-1, Sammy O'Dell (154 1/4 lbs) Akron, Ohio.


in Stockton, California, Charley Retziaff (200 lbs) Duluth, Minnesota, KO-1, Jack Roper (198 lbs) Hollywood, California.


in Los Angeles, California, Oscar Rankin (166 lbs) Los Angeles, Outpointed, Milford "Swede" Berglund (162 lbs).
Barre Daily Times, April 24, 1935, p. 2.


April 27, 1935 - Canadian Boxers to Fight in Amateurs - Boston
Five Canadian boxers, four of them provincial title holders, arrived here today to compete in an international amateur boxing tournament Monday night. They are Tommy Osborne, provincial heavyweight champion, who will swap punches with Pat Mulligan, Irish heavyweight champion, and Paul Flaherty, Boston college football star; Wally Cave, featherweight; Harold "Babe" McLeon, lightweight champion; Nick Nickilo, welterweight; and Ruby Belson, middleweight. A light workout at a local gymnasium was scheduled for this afternoon and tomorrow. The Canadians will attend the baseball game between the Boston Red Sox and the Washington Senators at Fenway Park. The Canadian and Irish contingents will enter one man, and New England two men in the 126, 135, 147, 160-pound and heavyweight classes.

Lomski Now a Policeman - San Francisco
Leo Lomski, who quit mining to become an outstanding light heavyweight boxer about a dozen years ago, earning the soubriquet "The Aberdeen (Washington) Assassin," is working as a special policeman here drawing assignments around the fight clubs mostly.
St. Johnsbury (Vermont) Caledonian-Record, Vol. XIX, No. 243, Saturday, April 27, 1935, p. 3


May 1, 1935, in Grand Forks, North Dakota, King Tut (155 lbs) Minneapolis, KO-1 Adolph Haavisto (165 lbs) Fargo, North Dakota.


in East Liverpool, Ohio, Paul Pirrone (Middleweight), Cleveland, Ohio, KO-1 Charley Long, Detroit.


Ross Fields (Featherweight), Weirton, West Virginia, KO-7 Young Jack Dempsey, Cleveland, Ohio.
Barre Daily Times, May 2, 1935, p. 2.


May 3, 1935, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Sammy Slaughter (171 lbs) Terre Haute, Indiana, Outpointed-10, Billy Ketchell (174 1/2 lbs) Millville, New Jersey.


Peoria, Illinois, Joe Louis (199 1/2 lbs) Detroit, Michigan, KO-2, Willie Davis (193 lbs) Chicago, Illinois.


Atlantic City, New Jersey, Young Terry (160 lbs) Trenton, New Jersey, KO-5, Al Fisher (164 lbs) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.


Portland, Maine, Vincenzo Troiano (162 1/2 lbs) Portland, Outpointed-6, Sam Bell (167 lbs) Providence, Rhode Island.
Barre Daily Times, May 4, 1935, p. 2.



May 6, 1935, in Chicago, Fritzie Zivic (143 lbs) Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Stopped-3, Sammy Chivas (144 lbs) Detroit, Michigan.


Lou Vine (136 lbs) Chicago, Stopped-3, Johnny Fitzpatrick (133 lbs) New York.


in Washington, Buck Everett (183 lbs) Gary, Indiana, Outpointed-10, Natie Brown (192 lbs) Washington.


Norman Barnett (204 lbs) Newark, New Jersey, Outpointed-6, Steve Colucci (190 lbs) New York.


Leroy Zinkham (138 lbs) Baltimore, Maryland, Outpointed-6, Jimmy Wade (132 lbs) Orlando, Florida.


Joe Teems (126 lbs) Miami, Florida, Outpointed-6, Tony Consolo (124 lbs) Orlando, Florida.


Andy Martin (128 lbs) Boston, Massachusetts, Outpointed Johnny Canzoneri (120 lbs) Allentown, Pennsylvania.


in Sioux City, Iowa, Willie Davies (136 lbs) Kansas City, Outpuointed-8, Joe Duran, (132 lbs) Scottsbluff, Nebraska.


in New York, Joe Rossi, (147 1/4 lbs) New York, Outpointed-8, Ray Napolitano (147 lbs) New York.


in Albany, New York, Willie Pal (138 lbs) Albany, Outpointed-8, Frankie Cinque (142 1/4 lbs) New York.


Holyoke, Massachusetts, Eddie Winston (195 lbs) Hartford, Connecticut, Outpointed-10, Terry Mitchell (184 1/2 lbs) New York.


Newark, New Jersey, Freddie Cochrane (133 lbs) Elizabeth, New Jersey, Outpointed-8, Al Roth (133 lbs) New York.
Barre Daily Times, May 7, 1935, p. 2.


May 7, 1935 - First of a Series of articles on James Jay Braddock. Jimmy Braddock, A Product of Aversity, His Story As Told by Associated Press Sports Writer John Stahr.
The Right That Failed - WHAT a spot for a Shakespeare-quoting heavyweight. Shakespeare thought up the perfect theme song for James Jay Braddock, the Jersey Jolter, who through an amazing sequence of happenstances, finds himself definitely dated to fight Max Baer for the heavyweight title on June 13. (more to come)
St. Johnsbury (Vermont) Caledonian-Record, Vol. XIX, No. 251, Tuesday, May 7, 1935, p. 3


May 16, 1935 - 2nd article on James Jay Braddock by Associated Press Sports Writer John Stahr. The Braddock Family Beats the Depression. Hard Labor, Lean Living Mark Comeback Trail of Once Fading Light-Heavy to Heavy Challengership.
Downgrade - And Up Again! - Something like the United States in general, James Jay Braddock in 1929 was starting on a depression whose extent and depth was not even vaguely guessed at the outset. (more to come)
St. Johnsbury (Vermont) Caledonian-Record, Vol. XIX, No. 259, Thursday, May 16, 1935, p. 6


May 18, 1935 - 3rd article on James Jay Braddock by Associated Press Sports Writer John Stahr. Braddock, "Trial Horse," Gets In The Money. Three Winning Fights In Year Against Favored Foes Bring Jerseyman His Chance At Heavy Title
Less than a year ago James Jay Braddock, onetime (1929) light-heavyweight title challenger, was juggling freight on the Jersey docks opposite Manhattan at $5 a day. (more to come)
St. Johnsbury (Vermont) Evening Caledonian and Newport Record, Vol. XIX, No. 261, Saturday, May 18, 1935, p. 3


May 20, 1935, in Newark, New Jersey, Joey Costa (134 3/4 lbs) Jersey City, Outpointed-8, Joey Greb (141 1/2 lbs) Herkimer, New York (relocates to Brooklyn).


in Sioux City, South Dakota, Andy (Kid) Miller (181 lbs) Sioux City, KO-3 over Ernie Potter (190 lbs.) Fargo, North Dakota
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, May 21, 1935, p. 3.


May 23, 1935, at Broadway Auditorium, Buffalo, New York, Jacob (Buddy) Baer (236 1/2 lbs) Livermore, California, KO-1 over George (Big Boy) Brackey (212 lbs) Buffalo.


Al Delaney (187 1/2 lbs) Cleveland, Ohio, TKO-3 over Frank Wojack (190 lbs) Utica, New York


Frank Eagan (139 lbs) Niagara Falls, New York, Outpointed-6, Frank Panex (146 lbs) Cleveland, Ohio.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, May 24, 1935, p. 6.


May 24, 1935, in Watsonville, California, Young Tommy (121 lbs) Manila, Phillipines, Outpointed-10, Joe Dodge (124 lbs) Sacramento, California.


in San Francisco, California, Small Montana (110 lbs) Manila, Outpointed-10, Jo Tie Ken (118 lbs) Japan


in Hollywood, California, Bep Van Klaverne (146 1/2 lbs) Holland, Outpointed-10, Kid Azteca (145 lbs) Mexico City
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, May 25, 1935, p. 3.


May 27, 1935, in Boston, Massachusetts, Louis (Kid) Cocoa (146 lbs) New Haven, Connecticut, Outpointed-10, Frankie Britt (147 lbs) Fall River, Massachusetts.


in Miami, Florida, Frankie Hughes (142 lbs) Clinton, Indiana, Outpointed-10, Johnny Lucas (138 lbs) Camden, New Jersey


in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, Joe Smallwood (126 lbs) Lancaster, Pennsylvania, Outpointed-8, Tommy Tomano (125 lbs) Cleveland, Ohio


in Denver, Colorado, Tait Littman (161 1/2 lbs) Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Outpointed-10, Emilo Martinez (163 1/2 lbs) Denver.


in New Orleans, Louisiana, George Salvadore (143 lbs) Boston, Massachusetts, Outpointed-10, Eddie (Kid) Wolfe (143 3/4 lbs) Memphis, Tennessee, and a Draw-8 with Battling Burroughs (152 1/2 lbs) Pascagoula, Mississippi.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, May 28, 1935, p. 3.


May 28, 1935, in Los Angeles, California, Henry Armstrong (135 lbs) St. Louis, Missouri, Outpointed-10, Davey Abad (134 1/2 lbs) Panama.


Frankie (Kid) Covelli (125 lbs) New York, Outpointed-10, Conrado Conde (124 lbs) Havana, Cuba.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, May 29, 1935, p. 3.


May 28, 1935, at the Polo Grounds, NYC, World Welterweight Championship fight. Barney Ross (Chicago) vs Jimmy McLarnin (Vancouver) and current title holder. Third meeting between the two. A decision in 15 by Ross over McLarnin before 35,000 fans.
Rutland Daily Herald, May 29, 1935, p. 1 & 12.


May 30, 1935, in Miami Beach, Florida, Frankie Hughes (145 1/2 lbs) Clinton, Indiana, K0-7, over Piedro Nieves (150 lbs) New York.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, May 31, 1935, p. 3.


May 31, 1935, in Fort Smith, Arkansas, Timmy Freeman (162 lbs) Hot Springs, Arkansas, Outpointed-10, Earl Mason (168 lbs) Bartlesville, Oklahoma.


in Chicago, Illinois, Bill Treest (173 1/2 lbs) Chicago, Outpointed-10, Henry Palmeri (173 lbs) Cleveland, Ohio.
Brattleboro Daily Reformer, June 1, 1935, p. 3.


June 13, 1935, Jimmy Braddock over Max Baer.
Burlington Free Press, June 8, 1935, p. 12 and June 14, 1935, p. 17.


June 24, 1935, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Cleto Locatelli (138 1/2 lbs) Italy, Outpointed -10, Eddie Cool, (135 1/2 lbs) Philadelphia.


in New York, Jack Doyle (212 1/4 lbs) Ireland, KO-1, Phil Donato (190 lbs) Brooklyn, New York.


Steve Halaiko (138 1/2 lbs) Buffalo, New York, Outpointed-10, Bobby Pacho (139 lbs) New Mexico.


in Harford, Connecticut, Steve Carr (170 lbs) Meriden, Connecticut, Outpointed-10, "Tiger" Warrington (174 lbs) Nova Scotia.


in Paterson, New Jersey, John Henry Lewis (182 lbs) Phoenix, Arizona, KO-1, Izzy Singer (179 lbs) Paterson.


in Chicago, Reuben (Bus) Bresse (137 1/2 lbs) Manhatten, Kansas, Outpointed-10, Johnny Stanton (137 1/4 lbs) Minneapolis, Minnesota.


in Toronto, Ontario, Sammy Slaughter (164 1/2 lbs) Terre Haute, Indiana, Outpointed-10, Al Trulman (162 1/2 lbs) San Diego, California.


in Milwaukee, Tait Littman (164 3/4 lbs) Cudahy, Wisconsin, Outpointed-10, George Black (160 1/4 lbs) Milwaukee.


Holyoke, Massachusetts, Joey Costa (132 lbs) Jersey City, New Jersey, Outpointed-10, Ed McGeever (135 lbs) Scranton, Pennsylvania.


in York, Pennsylvania, Kid Hockers (209 lbs) Steelton, Pennsylvania, Outpointed-6, Al Pressman (206 lbs) Baltimore, Maryland.


in Louisville, Kentucky, Johnny Durso (137 lbs) Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Outpointed-10, Frankie Wallace (135 lbs) Cleveland, Ohio.
Barre Daily Times, June 25, 1935, p. 2.


June 25, 1935, Joe Louis over Primo Carnera.
Burlington Free Press, June 24, 1935, p. 13 and June 26, 1935, p. 13.


June 27, 1935, in Indianapolis, Indiana, Chuck Woods (142 lbs) Detroit, Defeated 10 Matty Bagnatto (144 lbs) Schenectady, New York.


Lou Thomas (169 lbs) Indianapolis, KO-3, Mickey Misko (167 lbs) Lansing, Michigan.
Barre Daily Times, June 28, 1935, p. 2.


August 7, 1935, at Comiskey Park, Chicago, Joe Louis, Detroit's "Brown Bomber," weighting 198 lbs., TKO-1 (2 minutes, 21 seconds) over Chicago's "Kingfish" (peddler) Levinsky (Harry Krakow), before 40,000 fans. Poker faced Louis does not acknowledge the cheers of the crowd.
Burlington Free Press, August 8, 1935, p. 15.


August 12, 1935, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Mickey Walker, the Rumson, New Jersey bulldog, made good tonight in his second comeback start by knocking out Lou Poster, of Pottstown, Pennsylvania, in the second round of their scheduled ten round bout at the Arena. A typical old-time Walker left hook smashed the Pennsylvanian down for the count 28 seconds after the second round started. Walker opened the session by buckling Poster's knees with a pair of stiff right hands. Then he whipped the left over and the Pottstown battler fell face forward, not moving as Referee Tommy O'Keefe tolled the count. Walker, outweighted 173 to 183 pounds, had promised State Athletic Commission Secretary Jules Aronson that he would hang up his gloves if he lost tonight's fight.
Burlington Free Press, August 13, 1935, p. 11.


March 3, 1937, at Plattsburgh Barracks [8:30 PM], Plattsburgh, New York. Nick "KO" (The Blond Battering Ram) Coons, TKO-4, Mike Jacon* (147 lbs), Lowell, Massachusetts [*Deaf Mute].


Joey Soldato (130 lbs), Decision-6, Young Mancini (129 lbs) Lowell, Massachusetts.


Leo O'Brien, Albany, New York, Win-3, Larry Fasula, Plattsburgh Barracks.


Hip Knapik, Win-3, Johnny Moore, Troy, New York.


Frankie Bertolino, Win-3, Bat McMahon, Albany, New York.


Referee: Emmett Ryan, Albany, New York. Reserved Seat $1, General Admission 50 cents.
Plattsburgh Daily Republican, February 27, 1937, p.7 and March 4, 1937, p. 3.


April 5, 1937, Madison Square Garden, New York. Lightweights Lou Ambers, Herkimer, New York (137 lbs), Decision-10, loss to Pedro Montanez (138 1/2 lbs).
Also, on same card: Attilo Sabatino (154 1/2 lbs), Draw-6, with Johnny Rossi, Worcester, Massachusetts (160 1/2 lbs); Julio Gonzalez (134 1/2 lbs) dropped Decision-6, to Mickey {...}ber of New York East Side; Aurel Toma, Roumania, Outfought (Decision) over Joey Archi{...}, Providence, RI (119 lbs).
Referees: Arthur Donovan, Judges: Charley Lynch and Marty Monroe, before 17,353 fans. Gate $54,257.54.
Plattsburgh Daily Press, April 5 and 6, 1937, p. 2


April 7, 1937, at Plattsburgh Barracks, Plattsburgh, New York. Feature Event: Leo O'Brien (Irish Middleweight) fights to a Draw with Nick Coons (Champion of the Barracks).


Joey Soldato KO'd Young Mancini (Scheduled for 6 rounds).


Tommy Rae defeated by Shapiro. Also three new faces in 4 round bouts. Georgie Garcia vs Irizzary (Puerto Rican), Jack Blair vs Frank Bertolino (126 lbs), and Johnny Carpino vs Larry Fasula.
Plattsburgh Daily Press, April 8, 1937, p. 2, also see March 27, 1937 p. 8 and April 7, 1937, p. 2 (Preliminary story and picture of Tommy Rae).


July 21, 1944, London. "Schmeling Believed Dead."
A Reuters dispatch today from 1st U.S. Army Headquarters in Normandy said it was "rumored" a dead German soldier has been identified as Max Schmeling, former world heavyweight boxing champion. The body was reported found in the vicinity of the battle-torn town of Pont Hebert during the drive toward St. Lo. The dead German, identified as a member of a Nazi parachute regiment, was reported to have carried a passbook with the name Max Schmeling in it. But there was no definite confirmation it was the body of the prize fighter. According to soldiers who found the body, the man had been dead for about two days.
New York Journal American, July 21, 1944, p. 1

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